22
\$\begingroup\$

The goal is simple: calculate the totient function for as many numbers as you can in 10 seconds and sum the numbers.

You must print your result at the end and you must actually calculate it. No automated totient function is allowed, but bignum libraries are. You have to start at 1 and count up all the integers consecutively. You are not allowed to skip numbers.

Your score is how many numbers your program can calculate on your machine / how many my program can calculate on your machine. My code is a simple program in C++ (optimizations off), hopefully you can run it.

Important properties you could use!

  • if gcd(m,n) = 1, phi(mn) = phi(m) * phi(n)
  • if p is prime, phi(p) = p - 1 (for p < 10^20)
  • if n is even, phi(2n) = 2 phi(n)
  • others listed in first link

My code

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int gcd(int a, int b)
{
    while (b != 0)
    {
        int c = a % b;
        a = b;
        b = c;
    }
    return a;
}

int phi(int n)
{
    int x = 0;
    for (int i=1; i<=n; i++)
    {
        if (gcd(n, i) == 1)
            x++;
    }
    return x;
}

int main()
{
    unsigned int sum = 0;
    for (int i=1; i<19000; i++) // Change this so it runs in 10 seconds
    {
        sum += phi(i);
    }
        cout << sum << endl;
        return 0;
}
\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Maybe you might want to add that the input numbers should be consecutive integers. Otherwise I might be tempted to calculate the totient function for powers of 2 only. \$\endgroup\$ – Howard May 7 '14 at 6:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can I do 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 or the like? \$\endgroup\$ – Leaky Nun Apr 2 '16 at 15:42
14
\$\begingroup\$

Nimrod: ~38,667 (580,000,000/15,000)

This answer uses a pretty simple approach. The code employs a simple prime number sieve that stores the prime of the smallest prime power in each slot for composite numbers (zero for primes), then uses dynamic programming to construct the totient function over the same range, then sums the results. The program spends virtually all its time constructing the sieve, then calculates the totient function in a fraction of the time. It looks like it comes down to constructing an efficient sieve (with the slight twist that one also has to be able to extract a prime factor for composite numbers from the result and has to keep memory usage at a reasonable level).

Update: Improved performance by reducing memory footprint and improving cache behavior. It's possible to squeeze out 5%-10% more performance, but the increase in code complexity is not worth it. Ultimately, this algorithm primarily exercises a CPU's von Neumann bottleneck, and there are very few algorithmic tweaks that can get around that.

Also updated the performance divisor since the C++ code wasn't meant to be compiled with all optimizations on and nobody else did it. :)

Update 2: Optimized sieve operation for improved memory access. Now handling small primes in bulk via memcpy() (~5% speedup) and skipping multiples of 2, 3, and 5 when sieving bigger primes (~10% speedup).

C++ code: 9.9 seconds (with g++ 4.9)

Nimrod code: 9.9 seconds (with -d:release, gcc 4.9 backend)

proc handleSmallPrimes(sieve: var openarray[int32], m: int) =
  # Small primes are handled as a special case through what is ideally
  # the system's highly optimized memcpy() routine.
  let k = 2*3*5*7*11*13*17
  var sp = newSeq[int32](k div 2)
  for i in [3,5,7,11,13,17]:
    for j in countup(i, k, 2*i):
      sp[j div 2] = int32(i)
  for i in countup(0, sieve.high, len(sp)):
    if i + len(sp) <= len(sieve):
      copyMem(addr(sieve[i]), addr(sp[0]), sizeof(int32)*len(sp))
    else:
      copyMem(addr(sieve[i]), addr(sp[0]), sizeof(int32)*(len(sieve)-i))
  # Fixing up the numbers for values that are actually prime.
  for i in [3,5,7,11,13,17]:
    sieve[i div 2] = 0

proc constructSieve(m: int): seq[int32] =
  result = newSeq[int32](m div 2 + 1)
  handleSmallPrimes(result, m)
  var i = 19
  # Having handled small primes, we only consider candidates for
  # composite numbers that are relatively prime with 31. This cuts
  # their number almost in half.
  let steps = [ 1, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31 ]
  var isteps: array[8, int]
  while i * i <= m:
    if result[i div 2] == 0:
      for j in 0..7: isteps[j] = i*(steps[j+1]-steps[j])
      var k = 1 # second entry in "steps mod 30" list.
      var j = 7*i
      while j <= m:
        result[j div 2] = int32(i)
        j += isteps[k]
        k = (k + 1) and 7 # "mod 30" list has eight elements.
    i += 2

proc calculateAndSumTotients(sieve: var openarray[int32], n: int): int =
  result = 1
  for i in 2'i32..int32(n):
    var tot: int32
    if (i and 1) == 0:
      var m = i div 2
      var pp: int32 = 2
      while (m and 1) == 0:
        pp *= 2
        m = m div 2
      if m == 1:
        tot = pp div 2
      else:
        tot = (pp div 2) * sieve[m div 2]
    elif sieve[i div 2] == 0: # prime?
      tot = i - 1
      sieve[i div 2] = tot
    else:
      # find and extract the first prime power pp.
      # It's relatively prime with i/pp.
      var p = sieve[i div 2]
      var m = i div p
      var pp = p
      while m mod p == 0 and m != p:
        pp *= p
        m = m div p
      if m == p: # is i a prime power?
        tot = pp*(p-1)
      else:
        tot = sieve[pp div 2] * sieve[m div 2]
      sieve[i div 2] = tot
    result += tot

proc main(n: int) =
  var sieve = constructSieve(n)
  let totSum = calculateAndSumTotients(sieve, n)
  echo totSum

main(580_000_000)
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Epic! +1. Nimrod's starting to get more popular ;3 \$\endgroup\$ – cjfaure May 11 '14 at 18:01
  • \$\begingroup\$ Wait. Woah. I'm upvoting your other answer. :P \$\endgroup\$ – cjfaure May 11 '14 at 18:02
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Is Nimrod a cross between Python and C? \$\endgroup\$ – mbomb007 Jun 13 '16 at 21:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ Nimrod was recently renamed to Nim; while it borrows Python's syntactic style, the semantics are different, and unlike C, it is memory-safe (unless you use unsafe features) and has garbage collection. \$\endgroup\$ – Reimer Behrends Jun 16 '16 at 13:13
9
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Java, score ~24,000 (360,000,000 / 15,000)

The java code below does calculation of the totient function and the prime sieve together. Note that depending on your machine you have to increase the initial/maximum heap size (on my rather slow laptop I had to go up to -Xmx3g -Xms3g).

public class Totient {

    final static int size = 360000000;
    final static int[] phi = new int[size];

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        long time = System.currentTimeMillis();
        long sum = 0;

        phi[1] = 1;
        for (int i = 2; i < size; i++) {
            if (phi[i] == 0) {
                phi[i] = i - 1;
                for (int j = 2; i * j < size; j++) {
                    if (phi[j] == 0)
                        continue;

                    int q = j;
                    int f = i - 1;
                    while (q % i == 0) {
                        f *= i;
                        q /= i;
                    }
                    phi[i * j] = f * phi[q];
                }
            }
            sum += phi[i];
        }
        System.out.println(System.currentTimeMillis() - time);
        System.out.println(sum);
    }
}
\$\endgroup\$
9
\$\begingroup\$

Nimrod: ~2,333,333 (42,000,000,000/18,000)

This uses an entirely different approach from my previous answer. See comments for details. The longint module can be found here.

import longint

const max = 500_000_000

var ts_mem: array[1..max, int]

# ts(n, d) is defined as the number of pairs (a,b)
# such that 1 <= a <= b <= n and gcd(a,b) = d.
#
# The following equations hold:
#
# ts(n, d) = ts(n div d, 1)
# sum for i in 1..n of ts(n, i) = n*(n+1)/2
#
# This leads to the recurrence:
# ts(n, 1) = n*(n+1)/2 - sum for i in 2..n of ts(n, i)
#
# or, where ts(n) = ts(n, 1):
# ts(n) = n*(n+1)/2 - sum for i in 2..n of ts(n div i)
#
# Note that the large numbers that we deal with can
# overflow 64-bit integers.

proc ts(n, gcd: int): int =
  if n == 0:
    result = 0
  elif n == 1 and gcd == 1:
    result = 1
  elif gcd == 1:
    result = n*(n+1) div 2
    for i in 2..n:
      result -= ts(n, i)
  else:
    result = ts(n div gcd, 1)

# Below is the optimized version of the same algorithm.

proc ts(n: int): int =
  if n == 0:
    result = 0
  elif n == 1:
    result = 1
  else:
    if n <= max and ts_mem[n] > 0:
      return ts_mem[n]
    result = n*(n+1) div 2
    var p = n
    var k = 2
    while k < n div k:
      let pold = p
      p = n div k
      k += 1
      let t = ts(n div pold)
      result -= t * (pold-p)
    while p >= 2:
      result -= ts(n div p)
      p -= 1
    if n <= max:
      ts_mem[n] = result

proc ts(n: int128): int128 =
  if n <= 2_000_000_000:
    result = ts(n.toInt)
  else:
    result = n*(n+1) div 2
    var p = n
    var k = 2
    while k < n div k:
      let pold = p
      p = n div k
      k += 1
      let t = ts(n div pold)
      result = result - t * (pold-p)
    while p >= 2:
      result = result - ts(n div p)
      p = p - 1

echo ts(42_000_000_000.toInt128)
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Ladies and gentlemen, this is what I call wizardry. \$\endgroup\$ – Anna Jokela May 9 '14 at 19:39
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Great approach for calculating the sum directly, but unfortunately it does not calculate the totient function for as many numbers as you can which is the challenge given above. Your code actually calculates results (not even the result of the totient function) for only several thousand numbers (approx. 2*sqrt(n)) which makes for a much lower score. \$\endgroup\$ – Howard May 10 '14 at 6:29
7
\$\begingroup\$

C#: 49,000 (980,000,000 / 20,000)

https://codegolf.stackexchange.com/a/26800 "Howard's code".
But modified, phi values are computed for odd integers.

using System;
using sw = System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch;
class Program
{
    static void Main()
    {
        sw sw = sw.StartNew();
        Console.Write(sumPhi(980000000) + " " + sw.Elapsed);
        sw.Stop(); Console.Read();
    }

    static long sumPhi(int n)  // sum phi[i] , 1 <= i <= n
    {
        long s = 0; int[] phi;
        if (n < 1) return 0; phi = buildPhi(n + 1);
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) s += getPhi(i, phi);
        return s;
    }

    static int getPhi(int i, int[] phi)
    {
        if ((i & 1) > 0) return phi[i >> 1];
        if ((i & 3) > 0) return phi[i >> 2];
        int z = ntz(i); return phi[i >> z >> 1] << z - 1;
    }

    static int[] buildPhi(int n)  // phi[i >> 1] , i odd , i < n
    {
        int i, j, y, x, q, r, f; int[] phi;
        if (n < 2) return new int[] { 0 };
        phi = new int[n / 2]; phi[0] = 1;
        for (j = 2, i = 3; i < n; i *= 3, j *= 3) phi[i >> 1] = j;
        for (x = 4, i = 5; i <= n >> 1; i += x ^= 6)
        {
            if (phi[i >> 1] > 0) continue; phi[i >> 1] = i ^ 1;
            for (j = 3, y = 3 * i; y < n; y += i << 1, j += 2)
            {
                if (phi[j >> 1] == 0) continue; q = j; f = i ^ 1;
                while ((r = q) == i * (q /= i)) f *= i;
                phi[y >> 1] = f * phi[r >> 1];
            }
        }
        for (; i < n; i += x ^= 6)  // primes > n / 2 
            if (phi[i >> 1] == 0)
                phi[i >> 1] = i ^ 1;
        return phi;
    }

    static int ntz(int i)  // number of trailing zeros
    {
        int z = 1;
        if ((i & 0xffff) == 0) { z += 16; i >>= 16; }
        if ((i & 0x00ff) == 0) { z += 08; i >>= 08; }
        if ((i & 0x000f) == 0) { z += 04; i >>= 04; }
        if ((i & 0x0003) == 0) { z += 02; i >>= 02; }
        return z - (i & 1);
    }
}

New score: 61,000 (1,220,000,000 / 20,000)
In "App.config" I had to add "gcAllowVeryLargeObjects enabled=true".

    static long sumPhi(int n)
    {
        int i1, i2, i3, i4, z; long s1, s2, s3, s4; int[] phi;
        if (n < 1) return 0; phi = buildPhi(n + 1); n -= 4; z = 2;
        i1 = 1; i2 = 2; i3 = 3; i4 = 4; s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 = 0;
        if (n > 0)
            for (; ; )
            {
                s1 += phi[i1 >> 1];
                s2 += phi[i2 >> 2];
                s3 += phi[i3 >> 1];
                s4 += phi[i4 >> z >> 1] << z - 1;
                i1 += 4; i2 += 4; i3 += 4; i4 += 4;
                n -= 4; if (n < 0) break;
                if (z == 2)
                {
                    z = 3; i4 >>= 3;
                    while ((i4 & 3) == 0) { i4 >>= 2; z += 2; }
                    z += i4 & 1 ^ 1;
                    i4 = i3 + 1;
                }
                else z = 2;
            }
        if (n > -4) s1 += phi[i1 >> 1];
        if (n > -3) s2 += phi[i2 >> 2];
        if (n > -2) s3 += phi[i3 >> 1];
        if (n > -1) s4 += phi[i4 >> z >> 1] << z - 1;
        return s1 + s2 + s3 + s4;
    }

    static int[] buildPhi(int n)
    {
        int i, j, y, x, q0, q1, f; int[] phi;
        if (n < 2) return new int[] { 0 };
        phi = new int[n / 2]; phi[0] = 1;
        for (uint u = 2, v = 3; v < n; v *= 3, u *= 3) phi[v >> 1] = (int)u;
        for (x = 4, i = 5; i <= n >> 1; i += x ^= 6)
        {
            if (phi[i >> 1] > 0) continue; phi[i >> 1] = i ^ 1;
            for (j = 3, y = 3 * i; y < n; y += i << 1, j += 2)
            {
                if (phi[j >> 1] == 0) continue; q0 = j; f = i ^ 1;
                while ((q1 = q0) == i * (q0 /= i)) f *= i;
                phi[y >> 1] = f * phi[q1 >> 1];
            }
        }
        for (; i < n; i += x ^= 6)
            if (phi[i >> 1] == 0)
                phi[i >> 1] = i ^ 1;
        return phi;
    }
\$\endgroup\$
4
\$\begingroup\$

Python 3: ~24000 (335,000,000 / 14,000)

My version is a Python port of Howard's algorithm. My original function was a modification of an algorithm introduced in this blogpost.

I'm using Numpy and Numba modules to speed up the execution time. Note that normally you don't need to declare the types of the local variables (when using Numba), but in this case I wanted to squeeze the execution time as much as possible.

Edit: combined constructsieve and summarum functions into a single function.

C++: 9.99s (n = 14,000); Python 3: 9.94s (n = 335,000,000)

import numba as nb
import numpy as np
import time

n = 335000000

@nb.njit("i8(i4[:])", locals=dict(
    n=nb.int32, s=nb.int64, i=nb.int32,
    j=nb.int32, q=nb.int32, f=nb.int32))

def summarum(phi):
    s = 0

    phi[1] = 1

    i = 2
    while i < n:
        if phi[i] == 0:
            phi[i] = i - 1

            j = 2

            while j * i < n:
                if phi[j] != 0:
                    q = j
                    f = i - 1

                    while q % i == 0:
                        f *= i
                        q //= i

                    phi[i * j] = f * phi[q]
                j += 1
        s += phi[i]
        i += 1
    return s

if __name__ == "__main__":
    s1 = time.time()
    a = summarum(np.zeros(n, np.int32))
    s2 = time.time()

    print(a)
    print("{}s".format(s2 - s1))
\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ You should give proper credit when you copy code from other users. \$\endgroup\$ – Howard May 9 '14 at 0:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ Updated with proper credits! \$\endgroup\$ – Anna Jokela May 9 '14 at 7:00
3
\$\begingroup\$

Here is my Python implementation that seems to be able to crank out ~60000 numbers in 10seconds. I am factorizing numbers using the pollard rho algorithm and using the Rabin miller primality test.

from Queue import Queue
import random

def gcd ( a , b ):
    while b != 0: a, b = b, a % b
    return a

def rabin_miller(p):
    if(p<2): return False
    if(p!=2 and p%2==0): return False
    s=p-1
    while(s%2==0): s>>=1
    for _ in xrange(10):
        a=random.randrange(p-1)+1
        temp=s
        mod=pow(a,temp,p)
        while(temp!=p-1 and mod!=1 and mod!=p-1):
            mod=(mod*mod)%p
            temp=temp*2
        if(mod!=p-1 and temp%2==0): return False
    return True

def pollard_rho(n):
    if(n%2==0): return 2;
    x=random.randrange(2,1000000)
    c=random.randrange(2,1000000)
    y=x
    d=1
    while(d==1):
        x=(x*x+c)%n
        y=(y*y+c)%n
        y=(y*y+c)%n
        d=gcd(x-y,n)
        if(d==n): break;
    return d;

def primeFactorization(n):
    if n <= 0: raise ValueError("Fucked up input, n <= 0")
    elif n == 1: return []
    queue = Queue()
    factors=[]
    queue.put(n)
    while(not queue.empty()):
        l=queue.get()
        if(rabin_miller(l)):
            factors.append(l)
            continue
        d=pollard_rho(l)
        if(d==l):queue.put(l)
        else:
            queue.put(d)
            queue.put(l/d)
    return factors

def phi(n):

    if rabin_miller(n): return n-1
    phi = n
    for p in set(primeFactorization(n)):
        phi -= (phi/p)
    return phi

if __name__ == '__main__':

  n = 1
  s = 0

  while n < 60000:
    n += 1
    s += phi(n)
  print(s)
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

φ(2n) = 2n − 1
Σ φ(2i) = 2i − 1 for i from 1 to n

First, something to find times:

import os
from time import perf_counter

SEARCH_LOWER = -1
SEARCH_HIGHER = 1

def integer_binary_search(start, lower=None, upper=None, big_jump=1):
    if lower is not None and lower == upper:
        raise StopIteration # ?

    result = yield start

    if result == SEARCH_LOWER:
        if lower is None:
            yield from integer_binary_search(
                start=start - big_jump,
                lower=None,
                upper=start - 1,
                big_jump=big_jump * 2)
        else:
            yield from integer_binary_search(
                start=(lower + start) // 2,
                lower=lower,
                upper=start - 1)
    elif result == SEARCH_HIGHER:
        if upper is None:
            yield from integer_binary_search(
                start=start + big_jump,
                lower=start + 1,
                upper=None,
                big_jump=big_jump * 2)
        else:
            yield from integer_binary_search(
                start=(start + upper) // 2,
                lower=start + 1,
                upper=upper)
    else:
        raise ValueError('Expected SEARCH_LOWER or SEARCH_HIGHER.')

search = integer_binary_search(start=1000, lower=1, upper=None, big_jump=2500)
n = search.send(None)

while True:
    print('Trying with %d iterations.' % (n,))

    os.spawnlp(
        os.P_WAIT,
        'g++', 'g++', '-Wall', '-Wextra', '-pedantic', '-O0', '-o', 'reference',
        '-DITERATIONS=%d' % (n,),
        'reference.cpp')

    start = perf_counter()
    os.spawnl(os.P_WAIT, './reference', './reference')
    end = perf_counter()
    t = end - start

    if t >= 10.1:
        n = search.send(SEARCH_LOWER)
    elif t <= 9.9:
        n = search.send(SEARCH_HIGHER)
    else:
        print('%d iterations in %f seconds!' % (n, t))
        break

For the reference code, for me, that’s:


Trying with 14593 iterations.
64724364
14593 iterations in 9.987747 seconds!

Now, Haskell:

import System.Environment (getArgs)

phiSum :: Integer -> Integer
phiSum n = 2 ^ n - 1

main :: IO ()
main = getArgs >>= print . phiSum . (2^) . read . head

It makes something with 2525224 digits in 0.718 seconds. And now I’m just noticing @Howard’s comment.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can you post a score with the total consecutive numbers starting from 1 you managed to sum? \$\endgroup\$ – qwr May 8 '14 at 20:13
  • \$\begingroup\$ @qwr, that would be 0. If you want consecutive numbers, you should specify it in your question =) \$\endgroup\$ – Ry- May 8 '14 at 22:50
  • \$\begingroup\$ I did. I've edited it already, I'll edit it again. \$\endgroup\$ – qwr May 8 '14 at 23:05
2
\$\begingroup\$

Matlab: 1464 = 26355867/ 18000

I can't test your code so I divided by 18000 as it represents the fastest computer of those who tested. I came to the score using this property:

  • if p is prime, phi(p) = p - 1 (for p < 10^20)

I mostly like that it is a one liner:

sum(primes(500000000)-1)
\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ What about phi(p) for all non-prime p? \$\endgroup\$ – Geobits May 7 '14 at 12:53
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @Geobits I skipped those as the question does not mention which numbers you should use, as long as they are really calculated. \$\endgroup\$ – Dennis Jaheruddin May 7 '14 at 12:55
  • \$\begingroup\$ Ah, didn't notice that in the wording. Nice. \$\endgroup\$ – Geobits May 7 '14 at 12:57
  • \$\begingroup\$ You didn't even post a score... \$\endgroup\$ – qwr May 7 '14 at 21:26
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ ...How is it possible to not have Matlab & C++ on the same computer? \$\endgroup\$ – Kyle Kanos May 8 '14 at 14:03
1
\$\begingroup\$

Python 2.7: 10.999 (165975/15090)

Pypy 2.3.1: 28.496 (430000/15090)

Some interesting methods I use:

Rabin-Miller Strong Pseudoprime Test - A primality test that provides an efficient probabilistic algorithm for determining if a given number is prime

Euler's product formula - The product is over the distinct prime numbers dividing n

Euler's product formula

Code:

import math
import random

#perform a Modular exponentiation
def modular_pow(base, exponent, modulus):
    result=1
    while exponent>0:
        if exponent%2==1:
           result=(result * base)%modulus
        exponent=exponent>>1
        base=(base * base)%modulus
    return result

#Miller-Rabin primality test
def checkMillerRabin(n,k):
    if n==2: return True
    if n==1 or n%2==0: return False

    #find s and d, with d odd
    s=0
    d=n-1
    while(d%2==0):
        d/=2
        s+=1
    assert (2**s*d==n-1)

    #witness loop
    composite=1
    for i in xrange(k):
        a=random.randint(2,n-1)
        x=modular_pow(a,d,n)
        if x==1 or x==n-1: continue
        for j in xrange(s-1):
            composite=1
            x=modular_pow(x,2,n)
            if x==1: return False #is composite
            if x==n-1: 
                composite=0
                break
        if composite==1:
            return False        #is composite
    return True                 #is probably prime

def findPrimes(n):              #generate a list of primes, using the sieve of eratosthenes

    primes=(n+2)*[True]

    for i in range(2,int(math.sqrt(n))+1):
        if primes[i]==True:
            for j in range(i**2,n+1,i):
                primes[j]=False

    primes=[i for i in range(2,len(primes)-1) if primes[i]==True]
    return primes

def primeFactorization(n,primes):   #find the factors of a number

    factors=[]

    i=0
    while(n!=1):
        if(n%primes[i]==0):
            factors.append(primes[i])
            n/=primes[i]
        else:
            i+=1

    return factors

def phi(n,primes):
    #some useful properties
    if (checkMillerRabin(n,10)==True):      #fast prime check
        return n-1

    factors=primeFactorization(n,primes)    #prime factors
    distinctive_prime_factors=set(factors)  

    totient=n
    for f in distinctive_prime_factors:     #phi = n * sum (1 - 1/p), p is a distinctive prime factor
        totient*=(1-1.0/f);

    return totient

if __name__ == '__main__':


    s=0
    N=165975
    # N=430000
    primes=findPrimes(N)    #upper bound for the number of primes
    for i in xrange(1,N):
        s+=phi(i,primes)

    print "Sum =",s 
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks fro the algorithms! It was the only one I could understand easily and is not brute force checking of counting co-primes. \$\endgroup\$ – user Nov 12 '17 at 23:30

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