3 of 3 added 589 characters in body

Jelly, 13 bytes


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How it works

Dd4d2FṙJ$ḄṢIS  Main link. Argument: n

D              Decimal; convert n to base 10 (digit array).
 d4            Divmod 4; map each digit d to [d/4, d%4].
   d2          Divmod 2; map each [d/4, d%4] to [[d/8, d/4%2], [d%4/2, d%2]].
     F         Flatten the resulting 3D binary array.
      ṙJ$      Take all possible rotations.
         Ḅ     Convert each rotation from binary to integer.
          Ṣ    Sort the resulting integer array.
           I   Take the forward differences.
            S  Take the sum.