# Questions tagged [kolmogorov-complexity]

Kolmogorov complexity, informally, is the amount of code it takes to describe or produce a constant object, such as a string or image. When posting a challenge in this category, please make sure it adds something new to existing challenges.

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### Type out Green Eggs and Ham in vim

The book Green Eggs and Ham by Dr. Seuss is famous for only having 50 different words in the entire story of the book. Your task is to create a sequence of keystrokes that will result in the entire ...
6k views

### Generate a 5-pointed star [closed]

Your challenge is generate a 5 pointed star like below. The star doesn't need to be filled. Shortest code wins.
1k views

### How random is the Gettysburg Address [duplicate]

Your program must print out the Gettysburg Address. I copied this text from Wikipedia: Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty,...
5k views

### One Ring to rule them all. One String to contain them all

Objectives: Output a String which contains every positive integer strictly below 1000. The obvious answer would be to concatenate every one of them, and that would create a String of 2890 characters (...
1k views

### Build a “BizzFuzz” program

In traditional FizzBuzz, you are asked to print the numbers from 1 to 100, but replacing every multiple of 3 with "Fizz", every multiple of 5 with "Buzz", and every multiple of both 3 and 5 (i.e. 15) ...
3k views

### Generate a Universal-binary-function Lookup Table

This is tangentially related to my quest to invent an esoteric programming language. A table of the binary numbers 0 .. 15 can be used to implement a Universal Binary Function using indexing ...
1k views

### Print element from the periodic table [duplicate]

Your task is simple: given a number as an input, you have to print the English name of the chemical element with that atomic number, up to and including ununoctium. For example, for an input of 77, ...
3k views

### Print an arch of ascending / descending numbers

I figured an "arch" was the best way to describe this pattern of numbers: ...
3k views

### Print this Multiplication Table

Write shortest code to print the following Multiplication Table: ...
12k views

### Count from 1 to 100… in Roman Numerals

Write a program that count from 1 to 100 in Roman Numerals and print these numbers by standard output. Each one of the numbers must be separated by spaces. You cannot use any built in function to ...
3k views

### Normal distribution values

Write the shortest program possible which outputs a table of Normal distribution values phi(z) = Integral[t from -infty to z of e^(-t^2/2) /sqrt(2 pi) dt] for <...
3k views

### Who's that Pokémon?

Input: an integer N between 1 and 151 Output: the Nth Pokemon. Rules You may use one data file. You may not use any already made data decompression algorithms. This includes libraries and other ...
3k views

### Smile! Just smile

It's well known that Brainf*ck is very bad at Kolmogorov-complexity problems, for example, it requires around 100 characters just to print "Hello world". However, there might be texts where Brainf*ck ...
12k views

### Print this diamond

This question has been spreading like a virus in my office. There are quite a variety of approaches: Print the following: ...
1k views

### Generate the names of the keys on a piano

On a standard 88 key piano, each key has a scientific name. The first three keys are A0, B♭0, and B0. The keys then proceed through C1, D♭1, D1, E♭1, E1, F1, G♭1, G1, A♭1, A1, B♭1, B1, and start over ...
2k views

### Display the result of doing 8 perfect shuffles of a deck of cards

Explanation A perfect shuffle is where a deck of cards is split exactly in half and the cards from each pile are alternately interleaved. The original bottom cards and the original top card must be ...
14k views

### Draw A Sierpinski Triangle

The Sierpinsky Triangle is a fractal created by taking a triangle, decreasing the height and width by 1/2, creating 3 copies of the resulting triangle, and place them such each triangle touches the ...
70k views

### We're no strangers to code golf, you know the rules, and so do I

Write the shortest program that prints the entire lyrics of "Never Gonna Give You Up" by Rick Astley. Rules: Must output the lyrics exactly as they appear in the above pastebin*. Here's the raw dump:...
11k views

### List of primes under a million

This is my first code golf question, and a very simple one at that, so I apologise in advance if I may have broken any community guidelines. The task is to print out, in ascending order, all of the ...
12k views

### Write the shortest program that generates the most compiler warnings and errors

The challenge: Write a very short program that, when compiled, creates the most amount of compiler warnings and errors. It can be written in any programming language. Scoring: The score is ...
8k views

### Shortest ELF for “Hello world\n”? [duplicate]

Is it possible to write (pack) a shorter than 145 bytes version of a program with "Hello world" (plus new line) output if the length of the program is measured as a number of bytes in program's ELF (...
1k views

### Calculate a user's privileges on CodeGolf.SE

The Challenge Your goal is to write the shortest program possible that will take a list of events (such as upvote, downvote, etc) and return the user's reputation and the privileges that he has ...
10k views

### Brainf*** Golfer

One of easiest code written by a programming language is a program printing sequence of characters (ex. "Hello, world!"). However, some esoteric programming languages like Brainfuck, even this ...
1k views

### Encode an image inside of the source

The golf challenge is to encode and compress the following image inside a source file. To do this you need to write 3 functions: red, ...
553 views

### An Old Irish Blessing, reasked (without using encodings)

How much can you golf a program to print "An Old Irish Blessing" without using unprintable ASCII characters? That restricts us to ASCII characters 32-126 (better still, 32,65-90,97-122 and 13(CR)) ...
4k views

### ASCII Tux (Linux Penguin) [closed]

I once hacked upstart on my Ubuntu box so that a colored, themeable ASCII Tux displayed on the screen with the boot messages scrolling beneath him. I'm curious to ...
6k views

### Say “Hello” to the world in ASCII art

Challenge: Produce the following output using as few chars as possible: ...
9k views

### 12 Days of Christmas Lyrics

I thought this would be a fun challenge for everyone and I'm curious to see the solutions people come up with. Print the "12 Days Of Christmas" lyrics ...
12k views

### Print a Christmas Tree

The Challenge Print a nice Christmas tree with it's own star at the top using the shortest code possible. The tree star is an asterisk (*) and the tree body is ...
1k views

### Display Peter's keyboard pattern

Assume an simple keyboard with this layout: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z . , ? ! Peter's keyboard pattern can be ...
3k views

### There Was an Old Lady

Your goal is to write a program that prints the following poem exactly as it appears here: ...
2k views

### Generating BF-code with single purpose

I'd like to see you create code (in any programming language) that output working BF (Brain***k) code. Your program have a single character input on stdin. The input should be one digit ("0", "1", "2",...
509 views

### Pinyin Combinations

Create a function that takes a string of a pinyin syllable as the argument, and returns true of the combination exists, false otherwise. Use "v" for "ü". Here is a full list of combinations. http://...
5k views

### Shortest, lexicographically smallest generating string

A string x generates a string y if y is a substring of an infinite repeat of ...
1k views

### LED Numbers and Letters

The program must print the following block of text of LED numbers exactly. ...
4k views

### Print the alphabet four times

The program must print the alphabet four times: first in the normal alphabetical order, second in the order of a qwerty keyboard, third in the order of a dvorak keyboard, and lastly in reverse ...
13k views

### The alphabet in programming languages

Our task is to, for each letter of the (English) alphabet, write a program that prints the alphabet, in a language whose name starts with that letter. Input: none Output: ...
1k views

### An Old Irish Blessing

I don't know who coined these words, and I'm not Irish, but I give you an Irish blessing: ...
3k views

### Calculate digits of Pi

This is a somewhat different task. Calculate 1024 hexadecimal digits of π, beginning at the 1024th hexadecimal place. Formally: Your program should complete in less then 1 minute and produce the ...
2k views

### The Tic Tac Toe Dictionary

A TicTacToe game can be represented by a string denoting the sequence of positions as the players make their move. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Assume ...
3k views

### Koch Snowflake - codegolf

The Koch snowflake (also known as the Koch star and Koch island) is a mathematical curve and one of the earliest fractal curves to have been described. It is based on the Koch curve, which appeared in ...