# Print the tetration

Tetration, represented as $$\{}^ba\$$, is repeated exponentiation. For example, $$\{}^32\$$ is $$\2^{2^2}\$$, which is $$\16\$$.

Given two numbers $$\a\$$ and $$\b\$$, print $$\{}^ba\$$.

## Test cases

1 2 -> 1
2 2 -> 4
5 2 -> 3125
3 3 -> 7625597484987
etc.


Scientific notation is acceptable.

Remember, this is , so the code with the smallest number of bytes wins.

• What kind of numbers? Positive integers? – xnor Oct 22 '16 at 0:42
• Related – acrolith Oct 22 '16 at 0:43
• Exponentiation is non-associative. You should include at least one test cade with b > 2. – Dennis Oct 22 '16 at 1:02
• @Dennis 3 3 -> 7625597484987 – Gabriel Benamy Oct 22 '16 at 1:12
• @RosLuP No, 3^3^3 automatically means 3^(3^(3)). See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_operations, where it says "Stacked exponents are applied from the top down, i.e., from right to left." – Oliver Ni Nov 17 '16 at 16:10

# Dyalog APL, 3 bytes

*/⍴


TryAPL.

## Explanation

*/⍴  Input: b (LHS), a (RHS)
⍴  Create b copies of a
*/   Reduce from right-to-left using exponentation

• Hey, somebody who's beating @Dennis! Now that's rare! (; :P – hyper-neutrino Dec 3 '16 at 22:30

# J, 5 4 bytes

^/@#


This is literally the definition of tetration.

## Usage

   f =: ^/@#
3 f 2
16
2 f 1
1
2 f 2
4
2 f 5
3125
4 f 2
65536


## Explanation

^/@#  Input: b (LHS), a (RHS)
#  Make b copies of a
^/@   Reduce from right-to-left using exponentation

• Ok a^^b is above reversed b^^a... – user58988 Oct 22 '16 at 15:16
• @RosLuP Yes, J and APL evaluate from right-to-left, so 2 ^ 2 ^ 2 is evaluated as 2 ^ (2 ^ 2) and so on – miles Oct 24 '16 at 10:53

## Haskell, 19 bytes

a%b=iterate(a^)1!!b


Iterates exponentiating starting at 1 to produce the list [1,a,a^a,a^a^a,...], then take the b'th element.

Same length directly:

a%0=1;a%b=a^a%(b-1)


Point-free is longer:

(!!).(iterate1).(^)


# Mathematica, 16 bytes

Power@@Table@##&


# Explanation

Table@##


Make b copies of a.

Power@@...


Exponentiation.

## Python, 30 bytes

f=lambda a,b:b<1or a**f(a,b-1)


Uses the recursive definition.

# Python, 33 bytes

lambda a,b:eval('**'.join([a]*b))


This evaluates to an unnamed function, that takes the string representation of a number and a number. For example:

>>> f=lambda a,b:eval('**'.join([a]*b))
>>> f('5',2)
3125
>>>


If mixing input formats like this does not count, there is also this 38 byte version:

lambda a,b:eval('**'.join([str(a)]*b))

• What a cool method! – xnor Oct 22 '16 at 0:49

# Jelly, 4 bytes

x*@/


### How it works

x*@/  Main link. Arguments: a, b

x     Repeat [a] b times.
*@/  Reduce the resulting array by exponentation with swapped arguments.


# Perl, 19 bytes

Includes +1 for -p

Give numbers on separate lines on STDIN

tetration.pl
2
3
^D


tetration.pl

#!/usr/bin/perl -p
$_=eval"$_**"x<>.1


# R, 39 bytes

Recursive function:

f=function(a,b)ifelse(b>0,a^f(a,b-1),1)


# 05AB1E, 9 bytes

sUXGD}XGm


Try it online!

           # (implicit) push STDIN to stack
s          # swap top two stack values
U         # store top of stack in X
X        # push X to stack
G       # for N in [1, 2, ..., top of stack - 1]...
D      # duplicate top of stack
}     # exit loop
X    # push X to stack
G   # for N in [1, 2, ..., top of stack - 1]...
m  # push (second to top of stack) ^ (top of stack)
# (implicit) exit loop, output top of stack to STDOUT

• Welcome to the site and impressive first answer! I've edited your TIO link so that it includes an example input. Be sure to check out other recently active challenges as well as our Tips for golfing in 05AB1E page to see if you can shave any bytes off your answer! – caird coinheringaahing Sep 23 '20 at 0:28
• Thanks! I did actually end up checking out that page before submitting this answer :) – Makonede Sep 23 '20 at 0:33

# Element, 11 bytes

__2:':1[^]


Try it online!

This is just "straightforward" exponentiation in a loop.

__2:':1[^]
__              take two values as input (x and y)
2:'           duplicate y and send one copy to the control stack
:          make y copies of x
1         push 1 as the initial value
[ ]      loop y times
^       exponentiate
     print result


# JavaScript (ES7), 24 bytes

f=(a,b)=>b?a**f(a,b-1):1


The ES6 version is 33 bytes:

f=(a,b)=>b?Math.pow(a,f(a,b-1)):1

• Save 1 byte: f=a=>b=>b?a**f(a,b-1):1 – programmer5000 Apr 6 '17 at 18:42

# dc, 35 29 bytes:

?dsdsa?[ldla^sa1-d1<b]dsbxlap


Here is my first complete program in dc.

# Perl, 40 bytes

map{$a=$ARGV[0]**$a}0..$ARGV[1];print$a;  Accepts two integers as input to the function and outputs the result • Use pop to get $ARGV[1], then use "@ARGV" to get $ARGV[0]. Use say instead of print (option -M5.010 or -E is free). But still, ARGV is terribly long. A -p program almost always wins – Ton Hospel Oct 22 '16 at 6:56 # Actually, 6 bytes nⁿ)Y  Try it online! Input is taken as b\na (\n is a newline) Explanation: nⁿ)Y n a copies of b ⁿ)Y while stack changes between each call (fixed-point combinator): ⁿ pow ) move top of stack to bottom (for right-associativity)  # CJam, 9 bytes q~)*{\#}*  Try it online! ### Explanation q~ e# Take input (array) and evaluate ) e# Pull off last element * e# Array with the first element repeated as many times as the second { }* e# Reduce array by this function \# e# Swap, power  # PHP, 51 Bytes for($b=$p=$argv[1];++$i<$argv[2];)$p=$b**$p;echo$p;


# GameMaker Language, 52 50 bytes

d=a=argument0;for(c=1;c<b;c++)d=power(a,d)return d

• This is my 300th answer :o – Timtech Oct 23 '16 at 20:35
• GameMaker wtf? lol – Simply Beautiful Art Oct 27 '17 at 23:21
• @SimplyBeautifulArt Yes, and while I'm at it I'll take off 2 bytes for you. – Timtech Oct 28 '17 at 2:44
• Lol, nice. =) Have my +1, seems simple enough and I understand it. – Simply Beautiful Art Oct 28 '17 at 19:11
• @SimplyBeautifulArt Appreciated – Timtech Oct 29 '17 at 3:38

# Flurry-nii, 14 bytes

{}{{}({})}{{}}


Try it online!

Takes two numbers a b from stdin, and outputs as the return value.

### How it works

It works basically like xnor's Haskell answer: repeat (a^) b times to 1. a is left on the stack, so that it can be referenced in each iteration.

// In Church numeral, x a → a^x
main = b power_of_a 1

power_of_a = \x. x a
= \x. x (push pop)  // assumes a is on the top of the stack,
// pops and takes its value and pushes it back


# GolfScript, 9 bytes

~])*{\?}*


Try it online!

~]          # Put a and b in an array
)         # Remove b from the array
*        # Make b copies of a
{  }*   # Execute this block for each number in the array
\?     # Exponentiation


Just {?} would be (3^3)^3 instead of 3^(3^3).

# Pyth, 6 bytes

u^QGE1


Try it online.

### Explanation

          (implicit: input a to Q)
1    Start from 1.
u   E     b times,
^GQ      raise the previous number to power a.



## Minkolang 0.15, 12 11 bytes

nnDI1-[;]N.


Try it here!

### Explanation

nn             Read two integers from input
D            Pop top of stack and duplicate next element that many times
I1-         Push length of stack, minus 1
[        Pop top of stack and repeat for loop that many times
;       Pop b, a and push a^b
]      Close for loop
N.    Output as number and stop.


## Racket 51 bytes

(define ans 1)(for((i b))(set! ans(expt a ans)))ans


Ungolfed:

(define (f a b)
(define ans 1)
(for((i b))
(set! ans
(expt a ans)))
ans)


Testing:

(f 1 2)
(f 2 2)
(f 5 2)
(f 3 3)


Output:

1
4
3125
7625597484987


# Scala, 45 bytes

Seq.fill(_:Int)(_:Double)reduceRight math.pow


Ungolfed:

(a:Int,b:Double)=>Seq.fill(a)(b).reduceRight(math.pow)


Build a sequence of as with b elements, and apply math.pow from right to left.

# TI-Basic, 19 bytes

Prompt A,B
A
For(C,2,B
A^Ans
End


# Java 7, 71 57 bytes

double c(int a,int b){return b>0?Math.pow(a,c(a,b-1)):1;}


Ungolfed & test code:

Try it here.

class M{
static double c(int a, int b){
return b > 0
? Math.pow(a, c(a, b-1))
:1;
}

public static void main(String[] a){
System.out.println(c(1, 2));
System.out.println(c(2, 2));
System.out.println(c(5, 2));
System.out.println(c(3, 3));
}
}


Output:

1.0
4.0
3125.0
7.625597484987E12


# C, 50 bytes

double t(int x,int n){return n?pow(x,t(x,n-1)):1;}


Straightforward from the definition of Tetration.

# Bash, 50 bytes

(within the bounds of bash integer data type)

Golfed

E() { echo $(($(printf "$1**%.0s" seq 1$2)1));}


Explanation

Build expression with printf, e.g. E 2 5:

  2**2**2**2**2**1


then use bash built-in arithmetic expansion to compute the result

Test

E 1 2
1

E 2 2
4

E 5 2
3125

E 3 3
7625597484987


## Powershell, 68 Bytes

filter p ($a){[math]::Pow($a,$_)};iex (,$args[0]*$args[1]-join"|p ")  This is the shortest of the three approaches I tried, not that great overall though, i'm 100% sure there's a shorter approach but the few things I tried somehow ended up with slightly more bytes. PS C:\++\golf> (1,2),(2,2),(5,2),(3,3) | % {.\sqsq$_[0] $_[1]} 1 4 3125 7625597484987  Sadly Powershell has no built-in ^ or ** operator, or it would be a clean 32/33 byte answer, i.e. iex (,$args[0]*\$args[1]-join"^")

Axiom 70 bytes

l(a,b)==(local i;i:=1;r:=a;repeat(if i>=b then break;r:=a^r;i:=i+1);r)


this less golfed

l(a,b)==
local i
i:=1;r:=a;repeat(if i>=b then break;r:=a^r;i:=i+1)
r

(3) ->  [l(1,2),l(2,2),l(5,2),l(3,3),l(4,3)]

(3)
[1, 4, 3125, 7625597484987,
13407807929942597099574024998205846127479365820592393377723561443721764030_
0735469768018742981669034276900318581864860508537538828119465699464336490_
06084096
]
Type: List PositiveInteger
`