# Digital Diversity

A positive integer may be represented in an integer base $$\1 \le b < \infty\$$.

When converted to that base it has some number of distinct digits.

Any positive integer in base $$\1\$$ has $$\1\$$ distinct digit.

Most positive integers in base $$\2\$$ have $$\2\$$ distinct digits, the exceptions being those of the form $$\2^n - 1\$$, which only have $$\1\$$.

So the first positive integer that may be represented in an integer base with $$\1\$$ unique digit is $$\1\$$ and the first that may be represented with $$\2\$$ distinct digits is $$\2\$$.

We can say that $$\1\$$ is the first integer with digital diversity $$\1\$$ and $$\2\$$ is the first integer with digital diversity $$\2\$$.

### Challenge:

Given a positive integer $$\n\$$ return the first positive integer (in base ten*) that has a digital diversity of $$\n\$$.

* if your language only supports a specific base (e.g. unary or binary) then you may output in that base.

Your algorithm must work in theory for any positive integer input: it may fail because the precision of your language's integer is too small for the output; but may not fail because base conversion is only defined up to some limit.

### Test cases

input  output
1     1
2     2
3     11
4     75
5     694
6     8345
7     123717
17     49030176097150555672
20     5271200265927977839335179
35     31553934355853606735562426636407089783813301667210139
63     3625251781415299613726919161860178255907794200133329465833974783321623703779312895623049180230543882191649073441
257     87678437238928144977867204156371666030574491195943247606217411725999221158137320290311206746021269051905957869964398955543865645836750532964676103309118517901711628268617642190891105089936701834562621017362909185346834491214407969530898724148629372941508591337423558645926764610261822387781382563338079572769909101879401794746607730261119588219922573912353523976018472514396317057486257150092160745928604277707892487794747938484196105308022626085969393774316283689089561353458798878282422725100360693093282006215082783023264045094700028196975508236300153490495688610733745982183150355962887110565055971546946484175232


This is , the shortest solution in bytes wins.

OEIS: A049363 - also smallest pandigital number in base n.

# Jelly, 4 bytes

ṖaWḅ


### How it works

ṖaWḅ  Main link. Argument: n

Ṗ     Pop; yield [1, 2, 3, ..., n-1].
W   Wrap; yield [n].
a    Logical AND; yield [n, 2, 3, ..., n-1].
ḅ  Convert the result from base n to integer.

• I forgot place values could overflow, beats my lousy 7 :) Oct 14, 2016 at 18:16
• I wish there was a rep vs bytes used chart per user on codegolf. Maybe a plot of total bytes used vs current rep. Oct 14, 2016 at 20:47
• Took me a bit to figure out why this works ... slickly done! Oct 14, 2016 at 23:25

# Python, 40 bytes

f=lambda n,k=1:n*(n<k+2)or-~f(n,k+1)*n-k


Test it on Ideone.

### How it works

A number with n distinct digits must clearly be expressed in base b ≥ n. Since our goal is to minimize the number, b should also be as small as possible, so b = n is the logical choice.

That leaves us with arranging the digits 0, …, n-1 to create a number as small as possible, which means the most significant digits must be kept as small as possible. Since the first digit cannot be a 0 in the canonical representation, the smallest number is
(1)(0)(2)...(n-2)(n-1)n = nn-1 + 2nn-3 + … + (n-2)n + (n-1), which f computes recursively.

# Python 2, 54 46 bytes

This is a very very very! fast, iterative solution.

n=r=input();k=2
while k<n:r=r*n+k;k+=1
print r


Try it online

There's no recursion, so it works for large input. Here's the result of n = 17000 (takes 1-2 seconds):

http://pastebin.com/UZjgvUSW

• How long did input 17000 take? It takes 26 seconds on my machine, which seems slow compared to Jelly's 0.9 seconds... Oct 14, 2016 at 19:36
• Similar but other way around for three bytes less: lambda n:n**~-n+sum(i*n**(n+~i)for i in range(2,n)) Oct 14, 2016 at 19:44
• 46 bytes and a lot faster: n=r=input();k=2\nwhile k<n:r=r*n+k;k+=1\nprint r Oct 14, 2016 at 19:45
• Yes, it's amazing how much faster while loops are than comprehensions in Python. Oct 14, 2016 at 19:46
• @JonathanAllan That's not the reason. Computing the powers is very slow, while the loop only uses multiplication and addition. Oct 14, 2016 at 19:47

## JavaScript (ES6), 29 bytes

f=(b,n=b)=>n>2?f(b,--n)*b+n:b


# J, 9 bytes

#.],2}.i.


Based on @Dennis' method.

## Usage

   f =: #.],2}.i.
(,.f"0) >: i. 7
1      1
2      2
3     11
4     75
5    694
6   8345
7 123717
f 17x
49030176097150555672


## Explanation

#.],2}.i.  Input: n
i.  Get range, [0, 1, ..., n-1]
2}.    Drop the first 2 values, [2, 3, ...., n-1]
]        Get n
,       Prepend it, [n, 2, 3, ..., n-1]
#.         Convert that to decimal from a list of base-n digits and return


There is an alternative solution based on using the permutation index. Given input n, create the list of digits [0, 1, ..., n], and find the permutation using an index of n!, and convert that as a list of base-n digits. The corresponding solution in J for 12 bytes

#.]{.!A.i.,]  Input: n
i.    Make range [0, 1, ..., n-1]
]  Get n
,   Join, makes [0, 1, ..., n-1, n]
!        Factorial of n
A.      Permutation index using n! into [0, 1, ..., n]
]           Get n
{.         Take the first n values of that permutation
(This is to handle the case when n = 1)
#.            Convert that to decimal from a list of base-n digits and return

• Could it be shorter to construct [1,0,2,3,...,n-1]? Oct 14, 2016 at 18:57
• @JonathanAllan I can't find a way, but I did notice that the permutation indices of those would be (n-1)! Oct 14, 2016 at 19:08

# Ruby, 3735 34 bytes

->n{s=n;(2...n).map{|d|s=s*n+d};s}


The answer for a given n takes the form 10234...(n-1) in base n. Using n=10 as an example:

Start with n: 10

Multiply by n and add 2: 102

Mutliply by n and add 3: 1023

And so on.

EDIT: Shorter to use map, it seems.

EDIT 2: Thanks for the tip, m-chrzan!

• (2...n) will be a byte shorter. Oct 14, 2016 at 19:06

## CJam, 9 bytes

ri__,2>+b


Try it online!

### Explanation

ri   e# Read input N.
__   e# Make two copies.
,    e# Turn last copy into range [0 1 2 ... N-1].
+    e# Prepend a copy of N.
b    e# Treat as base-N digits.


## CJam (9 bytes)

qi_,X2$tb  Online demo ### Dissection Obviously the smallest number with digital diversity n is found by base-converting [1 0 2 3 ... n-1] in base n. However, note that the base conversion built-in doesn't require the digits to be in the range 0 .. n-1. qi e# Read integer from stdin _, e# Duplicate and built array [0 1 ... n-1] X2$t  e# Set value at index 1 to n
b     e# Base conversion


Note that in the special case n = 1 we get 1 [0] 1 1 tb giving 1 [0 1] b which is 1.

f n=foldl((+).(*n))n[2..n-1]


Converts the list [n,2,3,...,n-1] to base n using Horner's method via folding. A less golfed version of this is given on the OEIS page.

Thanks to nimi for 3 bytes!

• I don't know Haskell too well, does the fold require the function to be named (f?) to be a valid a golf solution? (it's just f is not referenced later in the code) Oct 14, 2016 at 19:55
• @JonathanAllan The lambda function form in Haskell is \n->fold1..., which is just as long as naming it. You can write a point-free function where the input variable isn't named by combining sub-functions, but that would be awful here with three references to n.
– xnor
Oct 14, 2016 at 20:01
• Cool, thanks for the explanation. Haskell syntax confuses me somewhat. Oct 14, 2016 at 20:04
• You can use foldl and start with n: f n=foldl((+).(*n))n[2..n-1]
– nimi
Oct 14, 2016 at 22:19

# 05AB1E, 9 bytes

DL¦¨v¹*y+


Try it online!

Explanation

n = 4 used for example.

D           # duplicate input
# STACK: 4, 4
L          # range(1, a)
# STACK: 4, [1,2,3,4]
¦¨        # remove first and last element of list
# STACK: 4, [2,3]
v       # for each y in list
¹*     # multiply current stack with input
# STACK, first pass: 4*4+2 = 18
# STACK, second pass: 18*4+3 = 75


# C++ - 181 55

Was about to post that real cool solution using <numeric>:

#import <vector>
#import <numeric>
using namespace std;int f(int n){vector<int> v(n+1);iota(v.begin(),v.end(),0);swap(v[0],v[1]);return accumulate(v.begin(),v.end()-1,0,[n](int r,int a){return r*n+a;});}


and then i realized it is way easier:

int g(int n){int r=n,j=2;for(;j<n;)r=r*n+j++;return r;}


# Perl 6,  34 31  30 bytes

Translated from the Haskell example on the OEIS page.

{(1,0,|(2..^$^n)).reduce:$n×*+*}        # 34
{(1,0,|(2..^$^n)).reduce:$n* *+*}       # 34

{reduce $^n×*+*,1,0,|(2..^$n)}           # 31
{[[&($^n×*+*)]] 1,0,|(2..^$n)}           # 31

{reduce $_×*+*,1,0,|(2..^$_)}            # 30

• [&(…)] turns … into an in-place infix operator
• The […] shown above turns an infix op into a fold (left or right depending on the operator associativity)

## Expanded:

{
reduce

# declare the blocks only parameter ｢$n｣ ( the ｢^｣ twigil ) # declare a WhateverCode lambda that takes two args ｢*｣$^n × * + *

# a list that always contains at least (1,0)
1, 0,
# with a range slipped in
|(
2 ..^ $n # range from 2 up-to and excluding ｢$n｣
# it is empty if $n <= 2 ) }  ## Usage: my &code = {reduce$_×*+*,1,0,|(2..^$_)} say code 1; # 1 say code 2; # 2 say code 3; # 11 say code 4; # 75 say code 7; # 123717 # let's see how long it takes to calculate a largish value: my$start-time = now;
$_ = code 17000; my$calc-time = now;
$_ = ~$_; # 25189207981120412047...86380901260421982999
my $display-time = now; say "It takes only {$calc-time - $start-time } seconds to calculate 17000"; say "but {$display-time - $calc-time } seconds to stringify" # It takes only 1.06527824 seconds to calculate 17000 # but 5.3929017 seconds to stringify  # Brain-Flak, 84 76 bytes Thanks to Wheat Wizard for golfing 8 bytes (({})<>){(({}[()]))}{}(<{}{}>)((())){{}({<({}[()])><>({})<>}{}{})([][()])}{}  Try it online! ## Explanation The program pushes the values from 0 to n-1 to the stack replaces the top 0 and 1 with 1 and 0. Then it multiplies the top of the stack by n and adds the value below it until there is only one value remaining on the stack. Essentially it finds the digits for the smallest number in base n that contains n different digits (for n > 1 it's always of the form 1023...(n-1)). It then calculates the number given the digits and the base. ### Annotated Code (({})<>) # Pushes a copy of n to the right stack and switches to right stack {(({}[()]))}{} # While the top of the stack != 0 copy the top of the stack-1 # and push it (<{}{}>) # Discard the top two values (0 and 1 for n > 1) and push 0 ((())) # Push 1 twice (second time so that the loop is works properly) {{} # Loop while stack height > 1 ( # Push... {<({}[()])><>({})<>}{} # The top value of the stack * n {} # Plus the value below the top of the stack ) # End push ([][()])}{} # End loop  • You can replace {}{}(()(<()>))([][()]) with (<{}{}>)([(())][]) to save four bytes Oct 15, 2016 at 18:20 • You could then replace that with (<{}{}>)((())) to save four more bytes Oct 15, 2016 at 18:22 # Japt, 8 bytes o1 hU ìU  Try it # Rockstar, 79 bytes listen to N cast N X's1 let T be N while N-X-1 let X be+1 let T be T*N+X say T  Try it here (Code will need to be pasted in) • Mystery Link Oct 9, 2020 at 15:39 # Julia, 26 bytes \(n,k=n)=k<3?n:n\~-k*n+~-k  Try it online! # ShapeScript, 25 bytes _0?1'1+@2?*1?+@'2?2-*!#@#  Input is in unary, output is in decimal. Try it online! # PHP, 78 Bytes for(;$i<$a=$argn;)$s=bcadd($s,bcmul($i<2?1-$i:$i,bcpow($a,$a-1-$i++)));echo$s;  Online Version 60 Bytes works only till n=16 with the precision in the testcases For n=144 INF n=145 NAN for(;$j<$a=$argn;)$t+=($j<2?1-$j:$j)*$a**($a-1-$j++);echo$t;


# k, 12 bytes

{x/x,2+!x-2}


# JavaScript (ES6), 39 bytes

Does not use =>

function f(b,n){throw f(b,n>2?--n:1)*b}

• Welcome to PPCG! Jun 28, 2017 at 15:33

# Husk, 7 bytes

B¹ṙ_1tḣ


Try it online!