- verb, a string that matches the regular expression
- plural, a truthy or falsy value
- person, an integer having value either 1, 2, or 3
- tense, an integer having value either 1, 2, or 3
The conjugated form of the Turkish verb verb, in personst/nd/rd person, plural if plural is
TRUE and singular if it is not, in
- If tense is 1, the simple present;
- If tense is 2, the continuing present;
- If tense is 3, the future.
Turkish verbs are conjugated in three elements, which are in order:
- The stem, formed by removing
mekfrom the end of the infinitive;
The sign of the tense, which is:
For the simple present:
- -r if the stem ends in a vowel;
- -ir according to vowel harmony rules (see below) if the stem contains more than one syllable (i.e. vowel), or is from one of the following irregular verbs: almak, bilmek, bulmak, durmak, gelmek, görmek, kalmak, olmak, ölmek, sanmak, vermek, varmak, vurmak;
- -er according to vowel harmony rules if the stem contains one syllable and is not listed in the irregular verbs above.
For the continuing present, -iyor, where the i changes according to vowel harmony rules. Stems that end in a vowel drop this vowel before adding this suffix, whereupon the suffix harmonizes with the next-to-last vowel in the word (guaranteed to exist by the regular expression).
- For the future:
- -ecek according to vowel harmony rules if the stem ends in a consonant;
- -yecek according to vowel harmony rules if the stem ends in a vowel.
The personal suffix to indicate the performer of the action, in all cases according to vowel harmony rules:
|Singular|Plural| |---|--------|------| |1st| -im | -iz| |2nd| -sin |-siniz| |3rd| (none) | -ler|
The final k of the future tense becomes ğ before -im and -iz, so for example
(almak, TRUE, 1, 3)would yield
Vowel harmony rules
Turkish vowels are divided into two groups: back (
a ı o u) and front (
e i ö ü) by where in the mouth they are pronounced. The suffixes of a word change vowels according to the vowels of the root.
All suffixes listed above that have i as a vowel instead use:
- -ı if the last vowel before the suffix is
a(both these vowels are back and unrounded);
- -i if the last vowel before the suffix is
e(both these vowels are front and unrounded; note here Turkish's distinction between dotted and dotless I);
- -u if the last vowel before the suffix is
o(both these vowels are back and rounded); or
- -ü if the last vowel before the suffix is
ö(both these vowels are front and rounded).
Take careful note of the present continuous suffix -iyor. The
i harmonizes, but the
o does not change. The personal suffixes will thus harmonize with the
All the suffixes listed above that have e as a vowel instead use:
- -e if the last vowel before the suffix is a front vowel; or
- -a if the last vowel before the suffix is a back vowel.
The verbs gitmek, tatmak, ditmek, gütmek, and etmek change the final
t to a
d before any endings that begin with a vowel (which includes all the endings in this challenge). Any verb that ends in -etmek likewise changes the
t to a
d, and appends -er for the simple present (though this is not so for the other verbs).
gütmek, FALSE, 1, 2 -> güdüyorum almak, TRUE, 3, 3 -> alacaklar boğmak, TRUE, 2, 1 -> boğarsınız ölmek, FALSE, 3, 1 -> ölür boyamak, TRUE, 1, 2 -> boyuyoruz affetmek, FALSE, 2, 1 -> affedersin söylemek, TRUE, 3, 1 -> söylerler söylemek, FALSE, 3, 2 -> söylüyor söylemek, FALSE, 1, 3 -> söyleyeceğim