Everyone knows what run-length encoding is. It has been the subject of many code-golf challenges already. We'll be looking at a certain variation.


Normal: 11222222222222222222233333111111111112333322
Run-length: 112(19)3(5)1(11)2333322

The number in parentheses specifies the number of times the previous symbol occurred. In the example, only runs of 5 or more characters were encoded. This is because encoding runs of 4 or less doesn't improve the character count.


Write a function/program that implements this variation of run-length encoding, but can also encode runs of two symbols. The runs of two symbols must also be enclosed in parentheses. A group will also be enclosed in parentheses. Your program must accept a string as input, and output the modified string with modifications that shorten the string.


Normal: 111244411144411144411167676767222222277777222222277777123123123123
Double run-length: 1112((444111)(3))67676767((2(7)7(5))(2))123123123123


  • 111 was not encoded because encoding it (1(3)) is not shorter.
  • The string 444111 occurs 3 times so it is encoded.
  • 676767 was not encoded because ((67)(4)) is longer than before.
  • 222222277777222222277777 was not encoded as ((222222277777)(2)). Why? Because 222222277777 itself can be reduced to 2(7)7(5).
  • 123123123123 isn't encoded because your program is supposed to handle runs of two symbols, not three.

This is so shortest code wins. Tie-breaker is early submission.

If I missed anything, or if you are unsure of anything please notify me in the comments.

  • \$\begingroup\$ But there are 4 67s. \$\endgroup\$ – Leaky Nun May 6 '16 at 18:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ Will we have to handle 441444144414 -> ((4414)(3))? \$\endgroup\$ – Leaky Nun May 6 '16 at 18:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ I have fixed it. \$\endgroup\$ – ericw31415 May 6 '16 at 18:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ @KennyLau No, you will not. 4414 is technically a series of 4. My wording is just bad. \$\endgroup\$ – ericw31415 May 6 '16 at 18:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ Can 111111111 be encoded as (1)(9)? \$\endgroup\$ – CalculatorFeline May 6 '16 at 21:44

Retina, 162 bytes


Try it online!

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  • \$\begingroup\$ If you input 10101010100100100100100, the output is ((10)(5))0((100)(4)), yet ((10)(4))((100)(5)) would be one character shorter. \$\endgroup\$ – Marv May 8 '16 at 1:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ Do you really have to use such marginal testcases.... \$\endgroup\$ – Leaky Nun May 8 '16 at 1:41
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes, thats all the fun! :^) \$\endgroup\$ – Marv May 8 '16 at 1:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ It's funny how this is the only answer currently here. \$\endgroup\$ – ericw31415 May 23 '16 at 23:50

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