Decompose a number!

This is similar to base conversion, except that instead of listing the digits in the base, you list the values, such that the list adds up to the input.

If the given base is n, then each number in the list must be in the form of k*(n**m), where 0<=k<n and m is unique throughout the list.

Specs

• Any reasonable input/output format. Your program/function takes 2 inputs and outputs a list.
• Output list can be in any order.
• 0 can be excluded or included.
• Leading 0 are allowed.
• Built-ins are allowed.

Testcases

number base   converted list
input1 input2 output
123456 10     [100000,20000,3000,400,50,6] or [6,50,400,3000,20000,100000]
11     2      [8,2,1] or [0,0,0,0,8,0,2,1]
727    20     [400,320,7]
101    10     [100,1] or [100,0,1]


Scoring

This is . Shortest solution in bytes wins.

Jelly, 7 bytes

lr0⁹*×b


How it works

lr0⁹*×b  Main link. Arguments: x (integer), n (base)

l        Compute the logarithm of x to base n.
r0      Range; yield all non-negative integers less than the logarithm, in
decreasing order.
⁹*    Elevate n to all integers in that range.
b  Yield the list of base-n digits of x.
×   Multiply each digit by the corresponding power of n.

• Ah, reversed range... – Leaky Nun May 2 '16 at 4:05
• It is so impressive what can be achieved with so few characters – t-clausen.dk May 3 '16 at 8:24

JavaScript (ES6), 47 bytes

f=(n,b,p=1,q=b*p)=>[...n<q?[]:f(n,b,q),n%q-n%p]
document.write("<pre>"+
[ [ 123456, 10 ], [ 11, 2 ], [ 727, 20 ], [ 101, 10 ] ]
.map(c=>c+" => "+f(...c)).join\n)

• Care to include a snippet? :) – Leaky Nun May 1 '16 at 9:27

Jelly, 12 bytes

bLR’*@€U
b×ç


Can be waaaay shorter...

Try it online!

• jelly.tryitonline.net/… – Leaky Nun May 1 '16 at 3:23
• lḞr0⁴*×b should work. – Dennis May 1 '16 at 5:54
• Technically, 0r⁴*³%I works as well. – Dennis May 1 '16 at 20:49
• Scratch that. lr0⁴*×b has the same byte count, without all the extra zeroes. – Dennis May 2 '16 at 2:53
• @Dennis That's definitely different enough to post as a separate answer. – Doorknob May 2 '16 at 3:32

Pyth - 12 11 bytes

Just a FGITW, can be shorter.

.e*b^Qk_jEQ

• Remove the _ for a byte :) – Leaky Nun May 1 '16 at 3:17
• @KennyLau meant FGITW, it means "Fastest Gun In The West", a phenomenon where people answering first get more upvotes than the better answers. – Maltysen May 1 '16 at 3:17
• @KennyLau oh that's allowed, derp. – Maltysen May 1 '16 at 3:18

J, 20 19 bytes

[(]*(^<:@#\.))#.inv


Usage

   f =: [(]*(^<:@#\.))#.inv
10 f 123456
100000 20000 3000 400 50 6
2 f 11
8 0 2 1
20 f 727
400 320 7
10 f 101
100 0 1


Explanation

[(]*(^<:@#\.))#.inv
#.      Given a base and list of digits in that base,
converts it to an integer in base 10
inv   Power conjunction by -1, creates an inverse
Now, this becomes a verb that given a base and an integer in base 10,
creates a list of digits in that base representing it
[                     Select the base and pass it along
#\.          Tally each suffix of the list of base digits,
Counts down from n to 1
<:              Decrements each value
@             More specifically, decrement is composed with the tally and applied
together on each suffix
^                Raises each value x using base^x
]                   Selects the list of base digits
*                  Multiply elementwise between each base power and base digit


CJam, 16 bytes

{1$b\1$,,f#W%.*}


An unnamed block that expects the base and the number on top of the stack (in that order) and replaces them with the digit list (including internal zeros, without leading zeros).

Test it here.

Explanation

1$e# Copy base b. b e# Compute base-b digits of input number. \ e# Swap digit list with other copy of b. 1$  e# Copy digit list.
,   e# Get number of digits M.
,   e# Turn into range [0 1 ... M-1].
f#  e# Map b^() over this range, computing all necessary powers of b.
W%  e# Reverse the list of powers.
.*  e# Multiply each digit by the corresponding power.


TSQL, 68 bytes

DECLARE @ INT=123456,@z INT=10
DECLARE @l INT=1WHILE
@>0BEGIN PRINT @%@z*@l SELECT @/=@z,@l*=@z END


Python 2, 44 bytes

lambda n,b:[n/b**i%b*b**i for i in range(n)]


Outputs from least significant to most, with many extra zeroes.

To output most significant to least:

f=lambda n,b,c=1:n*[1]and f(n/b,b,c*b)+[n%b*c]


Recurse, repeatedly taking digits off of n with divmod while scaling up the place value multiplier c.

• For the second version, can't you do range(-n,1) instead of range(n,-1,-1)? – Erik the Outgolfer Jul 18 '16 at 18:49
• @EʀɪᴋᴛʜᴇGᴏʟғᴇʀ Thanks, I didn't see that going in reverse was an option. It even suffices to just do range(n). – xnor Jul 18 '16 at 22:46

Ruby, 35 34 bytes

This is a port of xnor's Python answer, but it prints n times so the test case 727 20 prints 7, 320, 400, and 724 0s. Golfing suggestions welcome.

Edit: 1 byte thanks to Jordan.

->n,b{n.times{|i|p n/b**i%b*b**i}}

• You can save a byte with n.times{|i|p ...}. – Jordan Aug 20 '16 at 16:08

Mathematica, 12 bytes (non-competing)

I wonder whether Wolfram Research created this function after seeing the OP's challenge!

NumberExpand


This was introduced in version 11.0 (August, 2016).

• I edited to make this non-competing because Mathematica 11.0 was released on Aug 8. – Leaky Nun Aug 20 '16 at 16:11

Mathematica, 46 bytes

DiagonalMatrix@IntegerDigits@##~FromDigits~#2&


Explanation:


In[1]:= IntegerDigits[123456,10]

Out[1]= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

In[2]:= DiagonalMatrix@IntegerDigits[123456,10] // MatrixForm

Out[2]//MatrixForm= 1   0   0   0   0   0

0   2   0   0   0   0

0   0   3   0   0   0

0   0   0   4   0   0

0   0   0   0   5   0

0   0   0   0   0   6

In[3]:= DiagonalMatrix@IntegerDigits[123456,10]~FromDigits~10

Out[3]= {100000, 20000, 3000, 400, 50, 6}

• Very unexpected use of DiagonalMatrix. Kindly explain how it works in this case. – DavidC Aug 20 '16 at 16:15

Racket, 82 bytes

(define(d n b[a'()])(if(< n 1)a(d(/ n b)b(cons(*(modulo(floor n)b)(length a))a))))


I'm a winner (!)

• So many spaces... does <n 1 not work? (I don't know Racket at all) – Leaky Nun May 1 '16 at 4:37
• No that wouldn't work -- identifiers are delimited only by whitespace, parentheses/braces/curly braces, and some other symbols, like '. It's a good question, though. – Winny May 1 '16 at 4:41
• (And < is just a variable with a function bound to it) – Winny May 1 '16 at 4:41

JavaScript (ES7), 68 bytes

n=>b=>(c=[...n.toString(b)]).map(d=>b**--p*parseInt(d,b),p=c.length)


Test

Test uses Math.pow for browser compatibility.

f=n=>b=>(c=[...n.toString(b)]).map(d=>Math.pow(b,--p)*parseInt(d,b),p=c.length)
document.write("<pre>"+
[ [ 123456, 10 ], [ 11, 2 ], [ 727, 20 ], [ 101, 10 ] ]
.map(c=>c+" => "+f(c[0])(c[1])).join\n)

• ** isn't a valid JavaScript operator though right? – ericw31415 May 1 '16 at 13:15
• @ericw31415 It's the ES7 exponentiation operator. – user81655 May 1 '16 at 13:21
• Oh, it's experimental. That's why my browser does not support it. – ericw31415 May 1 '16 at 13:50

JavaScript, 75 bytes

(a,b)=>[...a.toString(b)].reverse().map(($,_)=>Math.pow(b,_)*parseInt($,b))


Just for fun :) It could be golfed more, but I'm not too sure how.

ES7, 66 bytes

If ES7 is allowed then:

(a,b)=>[...a.toString(b)].reverse().map(($,_)=>b**_*parseInt($,b))


O, 17 bytes

jQbS/l{#Qn^*p}d


Two notes:

1. The third test case does not work due to a bug with base conversion. See phase/o#68.

2. This does not work in the online interpreter. b hadn't been implemented yet.

><>, 28 bytes

:&\
&*>:{:}$%:n$}-:0=?;ao$&:  Expects the input values to be present on the stack at program start. As ><> doesn't have list objects, the output is presented as a newline-separated list of values, with the 'units' on the first line. An example run: Input: 11 2 Ouput: 1 2 0 8  @OP, if this isn't an acceptable output format, let me know and I'll edit the answer accordingly. PHP, 55 bytes Uses Windows-1252 encoding. for($n=$argv[1];$d+$n-=$d=$n%$argv[2]**++$i;)echo$d,~Ó;


Run like this (-d added for aesthetics only):

php -d error_reporting=30709 -r 'for($n=$argv[1];$d+$n-=$d=$n%$argv[2]**++$i;)echo\$d,~Ó; echo"\n";' 123056 10


C#, 77 bytes

IEnumerable _(int n,int b){int m=1;while(n>0){yield return n%b*m;n/=b;m*=b;}}


Actually, 17 bytes (non-competing)

;a¡;lrR(♀ⁿ@♂≈♀*;░


Try it online!

This submission is non-competing because the ♀ command was added after this challenge.

Explanation:

;a¡;lrR(♀ⁿ@♂≈♀*;░
initial stack: [b n] (b = base, n = number)
;                  dupe b
a                 invert stack
¡                n as a base-b integer
;lrR            dupe, length, range, reverse
(♀ⁿ         raise b to each power in range
@♂≈      create list of integers from base-b string
♀*    pairwise multiplication
;░  filter out zeroes


Pip, 13 bytes

Wa-:Pa%oo*:b


Doing it the old-fashioned way turned out to be shorter than using the TB base-conversion operator. The code runs a while loop until a (the number) is 0. At each iteration, it prints a%o and subtracts it from a. o is preinitialized to 1 and gets multiplied by b (the base) each iteration. (This approach keeps all 0s and also adds a leading 0`.)

Try it online!