Given input of a positive integer n, write a program that completes the following process.

  • Find the smallest positive integer greater than n that is a perfect square and is the concatenation of n and some other number. The order of the digits of n may not be changed. The number concatenated onto n to produce a perfect square may be called r_1.
  • If r_1 is not a perfect square, repeat the above process with r_1 as the new input to the process. Repeat until r_k is a perfect square, denoted s.
  • Print the value of sqrt(s).

Input can be taken in any format. You can assume that n is a positive integer. If any r_k has a leading zero (and r_k≠0), the zero can be ignored.

Test cases

Here are some test cases. The process demonstrates the above steps.

Input:   23
Process: 23, 2304, 4
Output:  2

Input:   10
Process: 10, 100, 0
Output:  0

Input:   1
Process: 1, 16, 6, 64, 4
Output:  2

Input:   5
Process: 5, 529, 29, 2916, 16
Output:  4

Input:   145
Process: 145, 145161, 161, 16129, 29, 2916, 16
Output:  4

Input:   1337
Process: 1337, 13373649, 3649, 36493681, 3681, 368102596, 2596, 25969216, 9216
Output:  96

This is code golf. Standard rules apply. The shortest answer (in bytes) wins.


7 Answers 7


Pyth, 26 bytes

LsI@b2 fy=sh.fys+QZ1\0)@Q2

Test suite

Output is as a float. If output as an int is desired, it would be 1 extra byte.


LsI@b2 fy=sh.fys+QZ1\0)s@Q2
                               Q = eval(input())
L                              def y(b): return
   @b2                         Square root of b
 sI                            Is an integer.
       f              )        Find the first positive integer T that satisfies
           h.f     1\0         Find the first digit string Z that satisfies
                +QZ            Concatenation of Q and Z
               s               Converted to an integer
              y                Is a pergect square.
          s                    Convert the string to an integer
         =                     Assign result to the next variable in the code, Q
        y                      Repeat until result is a perfect square
                               (The space) Discard return value
                        @Q2    Take square root of Q and print.

MATL, 35 44.0 bytes


Try it online!

XK        % implicit input: n. Copy to clipboard K
`         % do...while. Each iteration applies the algorithm
  `       %   do...while. Each iteration tests a candidate number
    x     %     delete top of stack
    @2^   %     iteration index squared
    t     %     duplicate
    V     %     convert to string                
    K     %     paste from clipboard K: n or r_k
    V     %     convert to string  
    Xf    %     find one string within another. Gives indices of starting matches, if any 
    1=a~  %     test if some of those indices is 1. If not: next iteration
  ]       %   end. We finish with a perfect square that begins with digits of n or r_k
  V       %   convert to string
  K       %   paste from clipboard K: n or r_k
  VnQ0h   %   index of rightmost characters, as determined by r_k
  )       %   keep those figures only
  U       %   convert to number. This is the new r_k
  XK      %   copy to clipboard K, to be used as input to algorithm again, if needed
  X^      %   square root
  1\      %   fractional part. If not zero: apply algorithm again
          % implitic do...while loop end
          % implicit display

Python 2, 98


Try it online.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Since we're in float abuse territory anyway... while x**.5%1: maybe? \$\endgroup\$
    – Sp3000
    Commented Feb 1, 2016 at 13:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Sp3000 thanks! I've golfed it down a bit more now. \$\endgroup\$
    – grc
    Commented Feb 1, 2016 at 13:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ampora only the ideone link printed the process, but I've changed that now. \$\endgroup\$
    – grc
    Commented Feb 1, 2016 at 13:49

Python, 200 198 178 bytes

import math
def r(i):
 while str(j*j)[:len(str(i))]!=str(i):j+=1
 return int(str(j*j)[len(str(i)):])
while math.sqrt(q)%1!=0:q=r(q)
  • \$\begingroup\$ You could save a good number of bytes by shortening math.sqrt to m. \$\endgroup\$
    – Arcturus
    Commented Feb 1, 2016 at 0:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ampora Aww yeah, saved 2 bytes \$\endgroup\$ Commented Feb 1, 2016 at 0:48

Brachylog, 26 bytes


Try it online!

The last test case was omitted in the TIO link because it alone takes more than a minute to execute. I ran it on my laptop and the correct result was achieved in no more than two hours.

{                             The input
 ~a₀                          is a prefix of
    X√                        X, the square root of which
      ℕ                       is a whole number.
       ∧YcX                   Y concatenated is X.
           ∧Yh?               The input is the first element of Y.
               ∧Yb            The rest of Y,
                  c           concatenated,
                      }       is the output
                   ℕ          which is a whole number.
                    ≜         Make sure that it actually has a value,
                     !        and discard all choice points.
{                     }ⁱ      Keep feeding that predicate its own output until
                        √     its output's square root
                         ℕ    is a whole number
                              which is the output.

The second-to-last is necessary for when the initial input is already a perfect square, so the first perfect square which has it as a prefix is itself, and ! is necessary to make sure that backtracking iterates instead of finding a larger concatenated square, but I don't really know why is necessary, I just know that 5 produces a wrong answer without it.

  • \$\begingroup\$ (Thanks to a bug in the parser, that horrible mess of named variables and s is actually shorter than using a sandwich.) \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jun 24, 2019 at 6:49

Perl 6, 101 bytes

put (q(get),&q...!(*.sqrt%1))[*-1].sqrt
my &q = {
  $^k; # declare placeholder parameter
  # set default scalar to:
  $_ = ( # a list
    # code block that generates every perfect square
    # larger than the input
    { ++( $ ||= $k.sqrt.Int )**2 }
    ...   # produce a sequence
    /^$k/ # ending when it finds one starting with the argument
  )[*-1]; # last value in sequence

  # take the last value and remove the argument
  # and turn it into a number to remove leading zeros

put (     # print the result of:
  q(get),     # find the first candidate
  &q          # find the rest of them
  ...         # produce a sequence
  !(*.sqrt%1) # ending with a perfect square
)[*-1]        # last value in sequence
.sqrt         # find the sqrt

ES7, 116 bytes

n=>{do{for(i=n;!(r=(''+Math.ceil((i*=10)**0.5)**2)).startsWith(+n););n=r.replace(+n,'');r=n**0.5}while(r%1);return r}

Yes, I could probably save a byte by using eval.


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