Your task is to create a program which takes a black-and-white outlined image (example images are below) and fills it in with colour. It is up to you how you section off each region and which colour to fill it with (you could even use an RNG).

For example:

output for example 1

As you can see I am clearly an artist of a superior calibre when it comes to MS Paint.


This is a popularity contest, so the answer with the most net votes wins. Voters are encouraged to judge answers by

  • Input criterion: any image that consists of white/light-grey background and black/dark-grey outlines
  • How well the colouring is done; meaning few or no areas are white unlike the above (unless you obviously intend to use white e.g. for clouds)
  • Customisability of the colours used in certain sections
  • How well the system works on a range of different images (of varying detail)
  • Post how long your program takes per image. We might not be playing code golf, but shorter, faster and more efficient code should be regarded as better
  • Should output the new image either onto the screen or to a file (no larger than 2MB so that it can be shown in the answer)
  • Please justify why you chose to output to that image type and comment/explain the workings of your code
  • The applicability of the colour used to the respective shape it is bound by (realistic colour scheme i.e. grass is green, wooden fences are brown etc.)

    "I could randomly color each area, but if I could identify the "fence" and make it similarly colored, then that's something that deserves upvotes." - NathanMerrill

Seeing as this is a popularity contest, you can also optionally judge by:

  • Overall appeal (how good the image looks)
  • Artistic flair; if you can program in shading or watercolour-style colouring etc.

In general, the smallest outputted image (file size) of the highest quality, with the fasted program and the highest public vote will win.

If you have other judging specifications that you think should be used, please recommend them in the comments of this post.


I own nothing; all example images are of a creative commons license.

example 1 in black/white Source: https://pixabay.com/ro/stejar-arbore-schi%C5%A3%C4%83-natura-303890/ example 2 in black/white Source: http://www.freestockphotos.biz/stockphoto/10665 example 3 in black/white Source: http://crystal-rose1981.deviantart.com/art/Dragon-Tattoo-Outline-167320011 example 4 in black/white Source: http://jaclynonacloudlines.deviantart.com/art/Gryphon-Lines-PF-273195317 example 5 in black/white Source: http://captaincyprus.deviantart.com/art/Dragon-OutLine-331748686 example 6 in black/white Source: http://electric-meat.deviantart.com/art/A-Heroes-Farewell-280271639 example 7 in black/white Source: http://movillefacepalmplz.deviantart.com/art/Background-The-Pumpkin-Farm-of-Good-old-Days-342865938

EDIT: Due to anti-aliasing on lines causing non-black/white pixels and some images that may contain grey instead of black/white, as a bonus challenge you can attempt to deal with it. It should be easy enough in my opinion.

  • 5
    \$\begingroup\$ To everyone: please does not downvote/close this as an "art contest" - there is more to it \$\endgroup\$
    – edc65
    Commented Jan 7, 2016 at 21:41
  • 16
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! I applaud you for having the courage to not only have your first post be a challenge, and not only a pop-con challenge, but an artistic challenge on top of it all. Good luck, I wish you the best, and if you stick around I think you'll be going far here. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 7, 2016 at 21:46
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ @OliverGriffin I'm voting against closing and also, I've added in the images you linked for you. You can remove the comments, if you wish. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 7, 2016 at 22:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ I finally found an approach that probably won't stack overflow, but now it's running kind of slowly. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 7, 2016 at 22:37
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ I've voted to reopen your question and have changed my -1 to a +1. Good job editing and adding additional information. Also, I applaud you for being so receptive to community criticism. Welcome to PPCG! Hope you enjoy it. \$\endgroup\$
    – Zach Gates
    Commented Jan 8, 2016 at 1:58

6 Answers 6


Spectral airbrushing (Python, PIL, scipy)

This uses a sophisticated mathematical algorithm to produce colourful nonsense. The algorithm is related to Google's PageRank algorithm, but for pixels instead of web pages.

I took this approach because I thought that unlike flood-fill based methods it might be able to cope with images like the chicken and the tree, where there are shapes that aren't entirely enclosed by black lines. As you can see, it sort of works, though it also tends to colour in different parts of the sky in different colours

For the mathematically minded: what it's doing is essentially constructing the adjacency graph of the while pixels in the image, then finding the top 25 eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian. (Except it's not quite that, because we do include the dark pixels, we just give their connections a lower weight. This helps in dealing with antialiasing, and also seems to give better results in general.) Having found the eigenvectors, it creates a random linear combination of them, weighted by their inverse eigenvalues, to form the RGB components of the output image.

In the interests of computation time, the image is scaled down before doing all this, then scaled back up again and then multiplied by the original image. Still, it does not run quickly, taking between about 2 and 10 minutes on my machine, depending on the input image, though for some reason the chicken took 17 minutes.

It might actually be possible to turn this idea into something useful, by making an interactive app where you can control the colour and intensity of each of the eigenvectors. That way you could fade out the ones that divide the sky into different sections, and fade in the ones that pick up on relevant features of the image. But I have no plans to do this myself :)

Here are the output images:

enter image description here

enter image description here

enter image description here

enter image description here

enter image description here

(It didn't work so well on the pumpkins, so I omit that one.)

And here is the code:

import sys
from PIL import Image
import numpy as np
import scipy.sparse as sp
import scipy.sparse.linalg as spl
import os
import time

start_time = time.time()

filename = sys.argv[1]
img = Image.open(filename)
orig_w, orig_h = img.size

# convert to monochrome and remove any alpha channel
# (quite a few of the inputs are transparent pngs)
img = img.convert('LA')
pix = img.load()
for x in range(orig_w):
    for y in range(orig_h):
        l, a = pix[x,y]
        l = (255-a) + a*l/255
        a = 255
        pix[x,y] = l,a
img = img.convert('L')

orig_img = img.copy()

# resize to 300 pixels wide - you can get better results by increasing this,
# but it takes ages to run
orig_w, orig_h = img.size
print "original size:", str(orig_w)+ ', ' + str(orig_h)
new_w = 300
img = img.resize((new_w, orig_h*new_w/orig_w), Image.ANTIALIAS)

pix = img.load()
w, h = img.size
print "resizing to", str(w)+', '+str(h)

def coords_to_index(x, y):
    return x*h+y

def index_to_coords(i):
    return (int(i/h), i%h)

print "creating matrix"

A = sp.lil_matrix((w*h,w*h))

def setlink(p1x, p1y, p2x, p2y):
    i = coords_to_index(p1x,p1y)
    j = coords_to_index(p2x,p2y)
    ci = pix[p1x,p1y]/255.
    cj = pix[p2x,p2y]/255.
    if ci*cj > 0.9:
        c = 1
        c =  0.01
    A[i,j] = c
    return c

for x in range(w):
    for y in range(h):
        d = 0.
        if x>0:
            d += setlink(x,y,x-1,y)
        if x<w-1:
            d += setlink(x,y,x+1,y)
        if y>0:
            d += setlink(x,y,x,y-1)
        if y<h-1:
            d += setlink(x,y,x,y+1)
        i = coords_to_index(x,y)
        A[i,i] = -d

A = A.tocsr()

# the greater this number, the more details it will pick up on. But it increases
# execution time, and after a while increasing it won't make much difference
n_eigs = 25

print "finding eigenvectors (this may take a while)"
L, V = spl.eigsh(A, k=n_eigs, tol=1e-12, which='LA')

print "found eigenvalues", L

out = Image.new("RGB", (w, h), "white")
out_pix = out.load()

print "painting picutre"

V = np.real(V)
n = np.size(V,0)
R = np.zeros(n)
G = np.zeros(n)
B = np.zeros(n)

for k in range(n_eigs-1):
    weight = 1./L[k]
    R = R + V[:,k]*np.random.randn()*weight
    G = G + V[:,k]*np.random.randn()*weight
    B = B + V[:,k]*np.random.randn()*weight

R -= np.min(R)
G -= np.min(G)
B -= np.min(B)
R /= np.max(R)
G /= np.max(G)
B /= np.max(B)

for x in range(w):
    for y in range(h):
        i = coords_to_index(x,y)
        r = R[i]
        g = G[i]
        b = B[i]
        pixval = tuple(int(v*256) for v in (r,g,b))
        out_pix[x,y] = pixval

out = out.resize((orig_w, orig_h), Image.ANTIALIAS)
out_pix = out.load()
orig_pix = orig_img.load()

for x in range(orig_w):
    for y in range(orig_h):
        r,g,b = out_pix[x,y]
        i = orig_pix[x,y]/255.
        out_pix[x,y] = tuple(int(v*i) for v in (r,g,b))

fname, extension = os.path.splitext(filename)
out.save('out_' + fname + '.png')

print("completed in %s seconds" % (time.time() - start_time))
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ This is REALLY cool. Probably one of my favourites so far. You did an excellent job of handling the antialiasing and the open ended areas, and someone finally coloured in Link! (Been waiting for that :-P save set to desktop) I wonder what my old English teacher would have said about that as a static image... "It shows the two sides of his heart, one side there is peace and on the other there is the fighting necessary to obtain that peace". Enough about my love for the Legend of Zelda games... It really is a shame that it takes so long. How big were the resulting files? P.s. Love images 4&5 \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 10, 2016 at 22:59
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @donbright a 3rd grader who could understand eigenvectors would be a very bright kid indeed - I'm not sure it's possible for me to explain the algorithm at that level. But let me try anyway: imagine that we print out the picture onto a stiff sheet of metal. Then we carefully cut away all the black lines and replace them with something much more flexible, like elastic. So the white parts are metal plates and the black parts are flexible fabric. Next we hang the whole thing in the air from string, so it's free to move. Now if we tap the metal plates, they will vibrate... \$\endgroup\$
    – N. Virgo
    Commented May 22, 2018 at 7:23
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @donbright (continued) ...Depending on how you hit the metal plate, it will vibrate in different ways. Maybe sometimes just one of the metal parts will vibrate and not the others, but other times (because they're connected by elastic), hitting one plate will start another one moving as well. These different ways of vibrating are called vibrational modes. This program simulates some of the vibrational modes of this metal plate, but instead of generating sound, it uses them to work out which colour to draw. \$\endgroup\$
    – N. Virgo
    Commented May 22, 2018 at 7:26
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @donbright You can also see here for more on visualising the vibrations of metal plates. \$\endgroup\$
    – N. Virgo
    Commented May 22, 2018 at 7:27
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @donbright (this more technical explanation might also lose you a bit, but this explanation works because the vibrational modes of a plate are also calculated using an eigenvector calculation. Though it's possible it's not quite the same calculation that my code does - I'm not really sure.) \$\endgroup\$
    – N. Virgo
    Commented May 22, 2018 at 7:28

Python 2 + PIL too, my first coloring book

import sys, random
from PIL import Image

def is_whitish(color):
    return sum(color)>500

def get_zone(image, point, mask):
    pixels = image.load()
    w, h = image.size
    s = [point]
    while s:
        x, y = current = s.pop()
        mask[current] = 255
        yield current
        s+=[(i,j) for (i,j) in [(x,y-1),(x,y+1),(x-1,y),(x+1,y)] if 0<=i<w and 0<=j<h and mask[i,j]==0 and is_whitish(pixels[i,j])]

def get_zones(image):
    pixels = I.load()
    mask = Image.new('1',image.size).load()
    w,h = image.size
    for y in range(h):
        for x in range(w):
            p = x,y
            if mask[p]==0 and is_whitish(pixels[p]):
                yield get_zone(image, p, mask)

def apply_gradient(image, mincolor, maxcolor, points):
    minx = min([x for x,y in points])
    maxx = max([x for x,y in points])
    miny = min([y for x,y in points])
    maxy = max([y for x,y in points])
    if minx == maxx or miny==maxy:
    diffx, diffy = (maxx - minx), (maxy-miny)
    stepr = (maxcolor[0] - mincolor[0] * 1.0) / diffy
    stepg = (maxcolor[1] - mincolor[1] * 1.0) / diffy
    stepb = (maxcolor[2] - mincolor[2] * 1.0) / diffy
    r,g,b = mincolor
    w, h = (abs(diffx+1),abs(diffy+1))
    tmp = Image.new('RGB', (w,h))
    tmppixels = tmp.load()
    for y in range(h):
        for x in range(w):
            tmppixels[x,y] = int(r), int(g), int(b)
        r+=stepr; g+=stepg; b+=stepb
    pixels = image.load()
    minx, miny = abs(minx), abs(miny)
    for x,y in points:
        pixels[x,y] = tmppixels[x-minx, y-miny]
    except Exception, e:

def colors_seq():
   yield (0,255,255)
   c = [(255,0,0),(0,255,0),(0,0,139)]
   while True:i%=len(c);yield c[i];i+=1

def colorize(image):
    out = image.copy()
        COLORS = colors_seq()
    counter = 0
    for z in get_zones(image):
        c1 = COLORS.next()
        c2 = (0,0,0) if counter == 0 else (255,255,255)
        if counter % 2 == 1:
            c2, c1 = c1, c2
        apply_gradient(out, c1, c2, list(z))
        counter +=1
    return out

if __name__ == '__main__':
    I = Image.open(sys.argv[-1]).convert('RGB')

I did quite the same as CarpetPython did, except that I fill the region with 'gradients', and use a different color cycle.

My most magnificient colorings : enter image description here enter image description here enter image description here

Computation times on my machine :

  • image 1 (chinese dragon): real 0m2.862s user 0m2.801s sys 0m0.061s

  • image 2 (gryffon) : real 0m0.991s user 0m0.963s sys 0m0.029s

  • image 3 (unicornish dragon): real 0m2.260s user 0m2.239s sys 0m0.021s

  • \$\begingroup\$ Nice gradients! When you stick a for loop inside a for loop with nothing else inside the first one do you not need to further indent? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 10, 2016 at 22:50
  • \$\begingroup\$ sure you do ! it's was copy/paste issue... \$\endgroup\$
    – dieter
    Commented Jan 11, 2016 at 7:17

Python 2 and PIL: Psychedelic Worlds

I have used a simple algorithm to flood fill each white-ish area with a color from a cycling palette. The result is very colorful, but not very lifelike.

Note that the "white" parts in these pictures are not very white. You will need to test for shades of grey too.

Code in Python 2.7:

import sys
from PIL import Image

WHITE = 200 * 3
cs = [60, 90, 120, 150, 180]
palette = [(199,199,199)] + [(R,G,B) for R in cs for G in cs for B in cs]

def fill(p, color):
    perim = {p}
    while perim:
        p = perim.pop()
        pix[p] = color
        x,y = p
        for u,v in [(x+dx, y+dy) for dx,dy in [(-1,0), (1,0), (0,1), (0,-1)]]:
            if 0 <= u < W and 0 <= v < H and sum(pix[(u,v)]) >= WHITE:

for fname in sys.argv[1:]:
    print 'Processing', fname
    im = Image.open(fname)
    W,H = im.size
    pix = im.load()
    colornum = 0
    for y in range(H):
        for x in range(W):
            if sum(pix[(x,y)]) >= WHITE:
                thiscolor = palette[colornum % len(palette)]
                fill((x,y), thiscolor)
                colornum += 1
    im.save('out_' + fname)

Example pictures:

A colorful dragon

Pumpkins on LSD

  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ The scary part is that the colours actually seem to work. How long did it take you to colour in each image and how big were the files? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 8, 2016 at 8:10
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ The program colors each image in about 2 seconds. The output image dimensions are the same as the input files. The file sizes are mostly 10% to 40% smaller than the originals (probably because different jpeg compression settings are used). \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 8, 2016 at 10:13
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ I'm thoroughly impressed at how short the code is! I also like how you effectively limit the colours available to use, thus keeping to a set pallet. I actually really do like it, it kind of gives of a grunge (is that the right word? I am not an artist) vibe. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 10, 2016 at 22:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ @OliverGriffin, I am glad you like it. I was aiming for a palette without bright or dark colors, but still having some contrast. This color range seemed to have the most pleasing results. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 11, 2016 at 5:52


function [output_image] = m3(input_file_name)
f=cat(3,mod((ar(c+(c==0))-min(ar(1:end-1)))/ ...

We use HSV colorspace and choose each regions Hue based on it's relative size between the white regions. The largest region will be blue (Hue = 0.7) and the smallest region will be violet (Hue = 0.8). The regions between these two sizes are given Hues in the range 0.7 -> 1=0 -> 0.8. The Hue on the range is linearly selected in respect to the function area^0.15. Saturation and Value is always 1 for every non-black pixel.

It takes less then 1 second to color an image.

The 3 pictures with closed regions where the algorithm works decently:


another dragon

maybe another dragon

And the rest of the images:


another dragon

maybe another dragon

On these images there are big white connected regions which should be ideally colored by multiple colors (this problem was nicely solved in Nathaniel's solution.

  • \$\begingroup\$ Nice and short code for some pretty colour coordinated results! I like how you used the area to help determine the hue. How long did it take to process the average image and why didn't it work on some of the more detailed images? Were the areas too small? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 10, 2016 at 22:39
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @OliverGriffin Anwered in my post and added the rest of the images. \$\endgroup\$
    – randomra
    Commented Jan 11, 2016 at 10:46

Python 3 with Pillow

The code is a bit long to include in this answer, but here's the gist of it.

  1. Take the input image and, if it has an alpha channel, composite it onto a white background. (Necessary at least for the chicken image, because that entire image was black, distinguished only by transparency, so simply dropping the alpha was not helpful.)
  2. Convert the result to greyscale; we don't want compression or anti-aliasing artifacts, or grey-lines-that-aren't-quite-grey, to mess us up.
  3. Create a bi-level (black and white) copy of the result. Shades of grey are converted to black or white based on a configurable cutoff threshold between white and the darkest shade in the image.
  4. Flood-fill every white region of the image. Colours are chosen at random, using a selectable palette that takes into account the location of the starting point for the flood-fill operation.
  5. Fill in the black lines with their nearest-neighbour colours. This helps us reintroduce anti-aliasing, by keeping every coloured region from being bordered in jaggy black.
  6. Take the greyscale image from step 2 and make an alpha mask from it: the darkest colour is fully opaque, the lightest colour is fully transparent.
  7. Composite the greyscale image onto the coloured image from step 5 using this alpha mask.

Those last few steps, unfortunately, have still not eliminated lighter "halos" that are visible in darker-coloured regions, but they've made a noticeable difference, at least. Image processing was never my field of study, so for all I know there are more successful and more efficient algorithms to do what I tried to do here... but oh well.

So far, there are only two selectable palettes for step 4: a purely random one, and a very rough "natural" one, which tries to assign sky colours to the upper corners, grass colours to the lower corners, brown (rocks or wood) colours to the middle of each side, and varied colours down the centre. Success has been... limited.


usage: paint_by_prog.py [-h] [-p PALETTE] [-t THRESHOLD] [-f | -F] [-d]
                        FILE [FILE ...]

Paint one or more line-art images.

positional arguments:
  FILE                  one or more image filenames

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -p PALETTE, --palette PALETTE
                        a palette from which to choose colours; one of
                        "random" (the default) or "natural"
  -t THRESHOLD, --threshold THRESHOLD
                        the lightness threshold between outlines and paintable
                        areas (a proportion from 0 to 1)
  -f, --proper-fill     fill under black lines with proper nearest-neighbour
                        searching (slow)
  -F, ---no-proper-fill
                        fill under black lines with approximate nearest-
                        neighbour searching (fast)
  -d, --debug           output debugging information


paint_by_prog.py -t 0.7 Gryphon-Lines.png Coloured gryphon

paint_by_prog.py Dragon-Tattoo-Outline.jpg Coloured cartoony dragon

paint_by_prog.py -t 0.85 -p natural The-Pumpkin-Farm-of-Good-old-Days.jpg Coloured farm scene

paint_by_prog.py -t 0.7 Dragon-OutLine.jpg Coloured grunge dragon

paint_by_prog.py stejar-arbore-schiţă-natura.png Coloured tree, looking very flag-like

The chicken doesn't look very good, and my most recent result for the Link image isn't the best; one that came from an earlier version of the code was largely pale yellow, and had an interesting desert vibe about it...


Each image takes a couple of seconds to process with default settings, which means an approximate nearest-neighbour algorithm is used for step 5. True nearest-neighbour is significantly slower, taking maybe half a minute (I haven't actually timed it).

  • \$\begingroup\$ The first image looks fantastic, especially that brown eye. Good job. I also applaud you on getting green grass, brown fields of pumpkins and purple clouds. \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 14, 2016 at 20:56


Random color selection from your choice of pallette.

Warning: Region finding currently very slow, unless the white regions are unusually small.

import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.image.*;
import java.io.File;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Queue;
import java.util.Random;
import java.util.Scanner;
import java.util.function.Supplier;

import javax.imageio.ImageIO;

public class Colorer{
    public static boolean isProbablyWhite(int x,int y){
        Color c=new Color(image.getRGB(x, y));
        if(c.getRed()<240)return false;
        if(c.getBlue()<240)return false;
        if(c.getGreen()<240)return false;
        return true;
    static class Point{
        int x,y;
        public boolean equals(Object o){
            if(o instanceof Point){
                Point p=(Point)o;
                return x==p.x&&y==p.y;
            return false;
        public Point(int x,int y){
    static BufferedImage image;
    static int W,H;
    public static void check(Point p,List<Point>l1,List<Point>l2,List<Point>l3){
    public static void process(int x,int y,Color c){
        List<Point>plist=new LinkedList<>();
        int rgb=c.getRGB();
        plist.add(new Point(x,y));
        List<Point>l3=new LinkedList<>();
        int k=0;
        for(int i=0;i<W*H;i++){
            List<Point>l2=new LinkedList<>();
            for(Point p:plist){
                int x1=p.x;
                int y1=p.y;
                    check(new Point(x1-1,y1),l2,plist,l3);
                    check(new Point(x1,y1-1),l2,plist,l3);
                    check(new Point(x1+1,y1),l2,plist,l3);
                    check(new Point(x1,y1+1),l2,plist,l3);
        for(Point p:plist){
    public static void main(String[]args) throws Exception{
        Random rand=new Random();
        List<Supplier<Color>>colgen=new ArrayList<>();
        colgen.add(()->{return new Color(rand.nextInt(20),50+rand.nextInt(200),70+rand.nextInt(180));});
        colgen.add(()->{return new Color(rand.nextInt(20),rand.nextInt(40),70+rand.nextInt(180));});
        colgen.add(()->{return new Color(150+rand.nextInt(90),10+rand.nextInt(120),rand.nextInt(5));});
        colgen.add(()->{int r=rand.nextInt(200);return new Color(r,r,r);});
        colgen.add(()->{return Arrays.asList(new Color(255,0,0),new Color(0,255,0),new Color(0,0,255)).get(rand.nextInt(3));});
        colgen.add(()->{return Arrays.asList(new Color(156,189,15),new Color(140,173,15),new Color(48,98,48),new Color(15,56,15)).get(rand.nextInt(4));});
        Scanner in=new Scanner(System.in);
        image=ImageIO.read(new File(in.nextLine()));
        final Supplier<Color>sup=colgen.get(in.nextInt());
        for(int x=0;x<W;x++){
            for(int y=0;y<H;y++){
        ImageIO.write(image,"png",new File("out.png"));

Requires two inputs: the filename, and the palette ID. Includes some antialiasing correction, but does not include logic for transparent pixels.

The following palettes are currently recognized:

0: Blue and greeen
1: Blue
2: Red
3: Greyscale
4: Three-color Red, Green, and Blue
5: Classic Game Boy pallette (four shades of green)


Dragon, Game Boy palette:

enter image description here

The other dragon, blue + green palette:

enter image description here

GOL still life mona lisa (as rendered by this program), tricolor palette:

enter image description here

  • \$\begingroup\$ +1 for your colour customisability! :) if you could fix the antialiasing issue this would look even better. How long did it take you to output these images? \$\endgroup\$ Commented Jan 10, 2016 at 22:32

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