Which finite abelian group is this?

Description

Write a function f(m, G) that accepts as its arguments a mapping m, and a set/list of distinct, non-negative integers G.

m should map pairs of integers in G to new integers in G. (G, m) is guaranteed to form a finite abelian group, but any element of G may be the identity.

There is an important theorem that says:

[Each finite abelian group] is isomorphic to a direct product of cyclic groups of prime power order.

f must return a list of prime powers [p1, ... pn] in ascending order such that

Examples

• f((a, b) → (a+b) mod 4, [0, 1, 2, 3]) should return [4], as the parameters describe the group Z4.

• f((a, b) → a xor b, [0, 1, 2, 3]) should return [2, 2], as the parameters describe a group isomorphic to Z2 × Z2.

• f((a, b) → a, [9]) should return [], as the parameters describe the trivial group; i.e., the product of zero cyclic groups.

• Define m as follows:

(a, b) → (a mod 3 + b mod 3) mod 3
+ ((floor(a / 3) + floor(b / 3)) mod 3) * 3
+ ((floor(a / 9) + floor(b / 9)) mod 9) * 9


Then f(m, [0, 1, ..., 80]) should return [3, 3, 9], as this group is isomorphic to Z3 × Z3 × Z9

Rules

• m may either be a function (or function pointer to some function) Int × Int → Int, or a dictionary mapping pairs in G × G to new elements of G.

• f may take its parameters in the opposite order, i.e. you may also implement f(G, m).

• Your implementation should theoretically work for arbitrarily large inputs, but need not actually be efficient.

• There is no limitation on using built-ins of any kind.

• Standard rules apply. Shortest code in bytes wins.

For your score to appear on the board, it should be in this format:

# Language, Bytes


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• If m is allowed to be a dictionary, could you provide the test cases as dictionaries as well? Dec 21, 2015 at 17:20
• I considered it, but they're pretty big, especially the last case (thousands of key-value pairs), and I can't think of a very good format for them. It's probably easier for answerers to copy the function definitions, and then construct the dictionaries themselves (with something like for a in G: for b in G: d[(a, b)] = m(a, b)).
– Lynn
Dec 21, 2015 at 17:25
• I think it is correct. I can't make sense of your paste well enough to verify what is going on, but this should prove it: bpaste.net/show/5821182a9b48
– Lynn
Dec 21, 2015 at 20:55
• To help wrap your head around it: it operates on ternary numbers with trits in the format AABC, treating them as triples (A, B, C), with pairwise addition modulo (9, 3, 3).
– Lynn
Dec 21, 2015 at 20:58
• Oh, I just realized my (very stupid) mistake. Thank you for your snippet! Dec 21, 2015 at 21:27

Matlab, 326 bytes

With some group theory the idea is quite simple: Here the TL;DR Calculate all possible orders of elements of the group. Then find the biggest subgroup of a certain prime power order and "factorize" it out of the group, rinse, repeat.

function r=c(h,l)

%factorize group order
N=numel(L);
f=factor(N);
P=unique(f);                %prime factors
for k=1:numel(P);
E(k)=sum(f==P(k));    %exponents of unique factors
end;

%calculate the order O of each element
O=L*0-1;
l=L;
for k=2:N+1;

l=h(l,L);

O(l==L & O<0)=k-1
end;

%%

O=unique(O);               % (optional, just for speedupt)
R=[];
% for each prime,find the highest power that
% divides any of the orders of the element, and
% each time substract that from the remaining
% exponent in the prime factorization of the
% group order
for p=1:nnz(P);                          % loop over primes
while E(p)>1;                        % loop over remaining exponent
for e=E(p):-1:1;                 % find the highest exponent
B=mod(O,P(p)^e)==0;
if any(B)
R=[R,P(p)^e];            % if found, add to list
O(B)=O(B)/(P(p)^e);
E(p)=E(p)-e;
break;
end;
end;
end;
if E(p)==1;
R=[R,P(p)];
end;
end;
r=sort(R)


Example inputs:

L = 0:3;
h=@(a,b)mod(a+b,4);
h=@(a,b)bitxor(a,b);
L = 0:80;
h=@(a,b)mod(mod(a,3)+mod(b,3),3)+mod(floor(a/3)+floor(b/3),3)*3+ mod(floor(a/9)+floor(b/9),9)*9;


Golfed version:

function r=c(h,l);N=numel(L);f=factor(N);P=unique(f);for k=1:numel(P);E(k)=sum(f==P(k));end;O=L*0-1;l=L;for k=2:N+1;l=h(l,L);O(l==L&O<0)=k-1;end;R=[];for p=1:nnz(P);while E(p)>1;for e=E(p):-1:1;B=mod(O,P(p)^e)==0; if any(B);R=[R,P(p)^e]; O(B)=O(B)/(P(p)^e);E(p)=E(p)-e;break;end;end;end;if E(p)==1;R=[R,P(p)];end;end;r=sort(R)


GAP, 159 111 bytes

GAP allows us to simply construct a group by a multiplication table and compute its abelian invariants:

ai:=    # the golfed version states the function w/o assigning it
function(m,G)
local t;
t:=List(G,a->List(G,b->Position(G,m(a,b))));
# t is inlined in the golfed version
return AbelianInvariants(GroupByMultiplicationTable(t));
end;


The old version

The finitely presented group with generators G and relations a*b=m(a,b) (for all a, b from G) is the group (G,m) we started with. We can create it and compute its abelian invariants with GAP:

ai:=    # the golfed version states the function w/o assigning it
function(m,G)
local F,n,rels;
n:=Size(G);
F:=FreeGroup(n);
rels:=Union(Set([1..n],i->
Set([1..n],j->
F.(i)*F.(j)/F.(Position(G,m(G[i],G[j]))) ) ));
# rels is inlined in the golfed version
return AbelianInvariants(F/rels);
end;


Examples

m1:=function(a,b) return (a+b) mod 4; end;
# I don't feel like implementing xor
m3:=function(a,b) return 9; end;
m4:=function(a,b)
return (a+b) mod 3 # no need for inner mod
+ ((QuoInt(a,3)+QuoInt(b,3)) mod 3) * 3
+ ((QuoInt(a,9)+QuoInt(b,9)) mod 9) * 9;
end;


Now we can do:

gap> ai(m1,[0..3]);
[ 4 ]


Actually, we are not restricted to using lists of integers. Using the correct domain, we can just use the general plus:

ai(\+,List(Integers mod 4));
[ 4 ]


So I can essentially do the second example using that its group is isomorphic to the additive group of the 2 dimensional vector space over the field with 2 elements:

gap> ai(\+,List(GF(2)^2));
[ 2, 2 ]


And the remaining examples:

gap> ai(m3,[9]);
[  ]
gap> ai(m4,[0..80]);
[ 3, 3, 9 ]


In the old version, m did not need to define a group composition for G. If m(a,b)=m(a,c), that just says that b=c. So we could do ai(m1,[0..5]) and ai(m3,[5..15]). The new version will fail horrible in these cases, as will both versions if m returns values that are not in G.

If (G,m) is not abelian, we get a description of the abelianized version of it, that is its biggest abelian factor group:

gap> ai(\*,List(SymmetricGroup(4)));
[ 2 ]


This is what AbelianInvariants is usually used for, we would normally just call AbelianInvariants(SymmetricGroup(4)).

The golfed version

function(m,G)return AbelianInvariants(GroupByMultiplicationTable(List(G,a->List(G,b->Position(G,m(a,b))))));end