# Telling time in French

Bonjour, PPCG ! Quelle heure est-il ? This means what time is it in French, for that is exactly what this challenge is about.

Telling time in French (at least formally) is a bit different from telling time in English. Telling the time starts out with Il est (It is). Then, you put the hour followed by heures (o'clock). (In case you don't know French numbers, here's a list: http://blogs.transparent.com/french/french-numbers-learn-how-to-count-from-1-to-1000/). If it is 1 o'clock, do une heure for this. For noon, use midi (with no heures), and for midnight use minuit.

Unless the minutes is 00, you then follow it with the number of minutes. There are a few exceptions to this however. For 15 minutes, you want to say et quart, and for 30 minutes you want to say et demi. For anything after 30 minutes, you increase the hour number by one, then add the word moins and 60 - the minutes. So 6:40 P.M is Il est sept heures moins vingt (vingt = 20). 45 minutes would be moins le quart.

Finally, you end it with the time of day. For the morning (1 A.M to 12 P.M), you say du matin. For the afternoon (subjective, but I'll define it as 1 P.M to 5 P.M), you say de l'apres-midi (technically there should be an accent above the e, but eh). And for night (5 P.M to 12 A.M) you say du soir. Note that for midnight and noon (minuit and midi) you don't put any of these afterwards -- the time of day is implied based on which one you use.

As you've probably already ascertained, the challenge here is to print out the current local time in French using these rules. Here's what sample output should look like at assorted times. (The time in the parenthesis does not have to be printed obviously, it's just there so you know what times are):

Il est sept heures du matin. (7:00 A.M)
Il est deux heures de l'apres-midi. (2:00 P.M)
Il est une heure du matin. (1:00 A.M)
Il est huit heures du soir. (8:00 P.M)
Il est midi. (12:00 P.M, Noon)
Il est minuit. (12:00 A.M, Midnight)
Il est cinq heures vingt du soir. (5:20 P.M)
Il est six heures et quart du matin. (6:15 A.M)
Il est neuf heures et demi du matin. (9:30 A.M)
Il est quatre heures moins dix de l'apres-midi. (3:50 P.M, not 4:50!)
Il est midi moins le quart. (11:45 A.M)


This is code-golf, so shortest code wins. Good luck!

EDIT: The period is required.

• Related: Spell out numbers in French – NinjaBearMonkey Sep 26 '15 at 13:52
• What should be the output for 08:41 AM, for instance? Il est huit heures quarante et une du matin (correct) or Il est neuf heures moins dix-neuf du matin (sounds strange)? – Blackhole Sep 26 '15 at 14:07
• Should we necessarily output the result, or can we just return it? Are internal functions that convert numbers to numerals allowed? – Blackhole Sep 26 '15 at 14:11
• Should we put an accent in après-midi? Can we? – Blackhole Sep 26 '15 at 14:22
• If you want. It's not necessary. – a spaghetto Sep 26 '15 at 19:07

## PHP - 521 473 bytes

$w=split(A,'AuneAdeuxAtroisAquatreAcinqAsixAseptAhuitAneufAdixAonzeAdouzeAtreizeA quatorzeAAseizeAdix-septAdix-huitAdix-neufAvingtAvingt et une');$h=idate('H');if(
$r=($m=idate('i'))>30){$h=++$h%24;$m=60-$m;}echo'Il est '.($h?$h==12?midi:$w[$h%12]
.' heure'.($h%12<2?'':s):minuit).($r?' moins':'').($m==15?($r?' le ':' et ').quart
:($m==30?' et demi':($m?' '.($m<22?$w[$m]:"$w-".$w[$m%10]):''))).($h%12?($h-=$r )<12?' du matin':($h<17?" de l'après-midi":' du soir'):'').'.';


The method used to converting a number to its numeral in French is inspired by this answer on an other challenge by edc65.

Here is the ungolfed version:

/** Define numerals **/
$numerals = [ '', 'une', 'deux', 'trois', 'quatre', 'cinq', 'six', 'sept', 'huit', 'neuf', 'dix', 'onze', 'douze', 'treize', 'quatorze', '', 'seize', 'dix-sept', 'dix-huit', 'dix-neuf', 'vingt', 'vingt et une' ]; /** Get current time **/$hours = idate('H');
$minutes = idate('i'); /** Check if we need to count in reverse **/$reverse = $minutes > 30; if ($reverse) {
$hours = ($hours + 1) % 24;
$minutes = 60 -$minutes;
}

echo 'Il est ';

/** Print hours **/
if ($hours === 12) { echo 'midi'; } else if ($hours === 0) {
echo 'minuit';
}
else
{
echo $numerals[$hours % 12] .' heure';
if ($hours % 12 !== 1) { echo 's'; } } /** Print minutes **/ if ($reverse) {
echo ' moins';
}

if ($minutes === 15) { if ($reverse) {
echo ' le ';
}
else {
echo ' et ';
}

echo 'quart';
}
else if ($minutes === 30) { echo ' et demi'; } else if ($minutes !== 0)
{
echo ' ';

if ($minutes < 22) { echo$numerals[$minutes]; } else { echo$numerals .'-'. $numerals[$minutes % 10];
}
}

/** Print daytime **/
if ($hours % 12 !== 0) { if ($reverse) {
--$hours; } if ($hours < 12) {
echo ' du matin';
}
else if ($hours < 17) { echo " de l'après-midi"; } else { echo ' du soir'; } } echo '.';  # Python 3, 586547556506505502498497 493 Bytes My first attempt at golfing anything. I’m really not sure about the way I choose, especially the n list. But I wanted to give it a try. from datetime import*;t=datetime.now() n='/une/deux/trois/quatre/cinq/six/sept/huit/neuf/dix/onze/douze/treize/quatorze/et quart/seize/dix-sept/dix-huit/dix-neuf/vingt//et demi'.split('/') n[21:22]=['vingt-'+i for i in['et-une']+n[2:10]] h,m=t.hour,t.minute;s=h//12;h%=12 e=' d'+('u matin',("e l'après-midi","u soir")[h>4])[s] try:m=' '[:m]+n[m] except:m=' moins '+(n[60-m],'le quart')[m==45];h+=1 e,h=('',e,('minuit','midi')[h//12^s],n[h]+' heures'[:h+5])[h%12>0::2] print('Il est',h+m+e+'.')  Ungolfed: from datetime import datetime time = datetime.now() numbers = [ '', 'une', 'deux', 'trois', 'quatre', 'cinq', 'six', 'sept', 'huit', 'neuf', 'dix', 'onze', 'douze', 'treize', 'quatorze', 'et quart', 'seize', 'dix-sept', 'dix-huit', 'dix-neuf', 'vingt', 'vingt-et-une', 'vingt-deux', 'vingt-trois', 'vingt-quatre', 'vingt-cinq', 'vingt-six', 'vingt-sept', 'vingt-huit', 'vingt-neuf', 'et demi'] status, hour = divmod(time.hour, 12) if status: ending = " du soir" if h>4 else " de l’après-midi" else: ending = " du matin" try: if not time.minute: minutes = "" else: minutes = " " + numbers[time.minute] except IndexError: hour += 1 if time.minute == 45: minutes = " moins le quart" else: minutes = " moins " + numbers[60 - time.minute] if hour%12: # 'whole' hours hours = numbers[hour] + " heures" if hour == 1: # removing extra 's' hours = hours[:-1] else: # midnight or noon ending = "" if (hour == 12 and status) or (hour == 0 and status == 0): hours = "minuit" else: hours = "midi" print('Il est', hours + minutes + ending + '.')  • You can save some 50 bytes with 'minuit#une#deux#...#vingt-neuf#et demi'.split('#'). Might be even shorter to just compress the string somehow. – Martin Ender Sep 26 '15 at 23:56 • @Martin yeah, just saw it on Blackhole's answer too. But I wanted to try to shorten it using the repetitions involved with "vingt-xxx". But after some sleep since Il est deux heures moins trois du matin. – 301_Moved_Permanently Sep 27 '15 at 0:00 • @MathiasEttinger a couple corrections, you have 'voingt' instead of vingt, and 21 is 'vingt et un', not 'vingt-et-une' – Brian Tuck Sep 27 '15 at 4:59 • Thanks for vingt. For 21 it should be vingt-et-une since minute is feminine, the same way that 1:01 AM is il est une heure une du matin. – 301_Moved_Permanently Sep 27 '15 at 8:48 • @BrianTuck Also 21 is vingt-et-un or vingt-et-une since 1990 instead of vingt et un or vingt et une: fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/vingt_et_une – 301_Moved_Permanently Sep 27 '15 at 9:08 # Javascript (ES6), 506 495 bytes Edit: Compressed a to save a few bytes. a= un j k yre h six w v p} onldoultreilyorl seize}-w}-v}-p~~ et un{j{k{yre{h{six{w{v{p et demi,[...hjklpvwy{}~].map((x,w)=>a=a.split(x).join(cinq|deux|trois|ze |neuf|huit|sept|quat|~-| dix| vingt.split|[w])),a=a.split ,alert(Il est${(e=(d=((b=(z=new Date).getHours())+(y=(c=z.getMinutes())>30))%24)%12)?a[e]+ heure${e-1?"s":""}:d?'midi':'minuit'}${y?"moins ":""}${y?c-45?a[60-c]:'le quart':c-15?a[c]:'et quart'}${e?[' du matin'," de l'apres-midi",' du soir'][(b>12)+(b>16)]:""}.)


Explanation:

a = 'compressed string of french numbers with 'et demi' for 30 and 15 removed';
a = // code that decompresses a

// a,b,c,d,e,y,z are all inlined into the first expression that uses them
z = new Date();
b = z.getHours();
c = z.getMinutes();
y = c > 30; // true if 60 - minutes, false otherwise
d = (b + y) % 24; // the next hour if y
e = d % 12; // is it not noon and not midnight?

"Il est " +
// if d is not 0 or 12, add d + 'heure(s)'
(e ? a[e] +  heure\${e-1?"s":""} : d ? 'midi' : 'minuit') +
" " +
(y ? "moins " : "") + // add 'moins' if necessary

y? // necessary to subtract from 60?
c-45?
a[60-c] // add normal number word
:'le quart' // handle special case for 45
:c-15?
:'et quart' // handle special case for 15
) +
( // select appropriate ending
e? // is it not noon and not midnight?
// create array of endings
[" du matin"," de l'apres-midi"," du soir"]
// selects item 0 if b in [0, 12], item 1 if b in [13, 16] and item 2 if b > 16
[(b > 12) + (b > 16)]
:"" // if it's noon or midnight, no ending is necessary
) +
)


# C, 860 835 794 bytes

Absolutely horrendous, but can probably be made even shorter. Many newlines were added for formatting purposes on this site. The actual source code has newlines after the #includes and #defines, but everything starting from char* to the last w(".\n");} are all in one line. I shortened it by removing the values from 22,...,29 in the string array, instead reusing the strings for 2,...,9 and prepending a "vingt-" when appropriate. (I really hope I didn't introduce a bug!)

#include <sys/time.h>
#define w printf
#define q tm_min
#define r tm_hour
char*a[]={"minuit","une","deux","trois","quatre","cinq","six","sept","huit","neuf","dix",
"onze","douze","treize","quatorze","quart","seize","dix-sept","dix-huit","dix-
neuf","vingt","vingt-et-une",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,"demi"};
h=1,s=1,m,e,l,t,p,o,v;struct tm j;
main(){struct timeval i;gettimeofday(&i,0);localtime_r(&i.tv_sec,&j);
j.q>30?m=1,++j.r,j.q=60-j.q:j.q==15||j.q==30?e=1:0;j.q>21&&j.q<30?v=1:0;
j.r%12?j.r<12?t=1:j.r-m<17?p=1:(o=1):0;
j.q==15&&m?l=1:0;j.r%12?j.r%12==1?s=0:0:(h=0,s=0);
w("Il est ");j.r==12?w("midi"):w("%s",a[j.r%12]);h?w(" heure"):0;s?w("s"):0;
m?w(" moins"):0;e?w(" et"):0;l?w(" le"):0;
j.q?v?w(" vingt-"):w(" "),w("%s",a[j.q-20*v]):0;
t?w(" du matin"):p?w(" de l'apres-midi"):o?w(" du soir"):0;w(".\n");}


Like this:

#include <sys/time.h>
#define w printf
#define q tm_min
#define r tm_hour
char*a[]={"minuit","une","deux","trois","quatre","cinq","six","sept","huit","neuf","dix","onze","douze","treize","quatorze","quart","seize","dix-sept","dix-huit","dix-neuf","vingt","vingt-et-une",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,"demi"};h=1,s=1,m,e,l,t,p,o,v;struct tm j;main(){struct timeval i;gettimeofday(&i,0);localtime_r(&i.tv_sec,&j);j.q>30?m=1,++j.r,j.q=60-j.q:j.q==15||j.q==30?e=1:0;j.q>21&&j.q<30?v=1:0;j.r%12?j.r<12?t=1:j.r-m<17?p=1:(o=1):0;j.q==15&&m?l=1:0;j.r%12?j.r%12==1?s=0:0:(h=0,s=0);w("Il est ");j.r==12?w("midi"):w("%s",a[j.r%12]);h?w(" heure"):0;s?w("s"):0;m?w(" moins"):0;e?w(" et"):0;l?w(" le"):0;j.q?v?w(" vingt-"):w(" "),w("%s",a[j.q-20*v]):0;t?w(" du matin"):p?w(" de l'apres-midi"):o?w(" du soir"):0;w(".\n");}


Ungolfed version, with no "space optimizations" (also pretty ugly):

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>

#include <sys/time.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct timeval tv;
struct tm local_time;
char *nums[] = {"minuit", "une", "deux", "trois", "quatre", "cinq", "six", "sept", "huit", "neuf", "dix", "onze", "douze", "treize", "quatorze", "quart", "seize", "dix-sept", "dix-huit", "dix-neuf", "vingt", "vingt-et-une", "vingt-deux", "vingt-trois", "vingt-quatre", "vingt-cinq", "vingt-six", "vingt-sept", "vingt-huit", "vingt-neuf", "demi"};
int heure = 1;
int s = 1;
int moins = 0;
int et = 0;
int le = 0;
int matin = 0, aprem = 0, soir = 0;

memset(&local_time, 0, sizeof local_time);
gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
localtime_r(&tv.tv_sec, &local_time);

#if 0
local_time.tm_min = atoi(argv);
local_time.tm_hour = atoi(argv);
#endif
if (local_time.tm_min > 30) {
moins = 1;
local_time.tm_hour += 1;
local_time.tm_min = 60 - local_time.tm_min;
} else if (local_time.tm_min == 15 || local_time.tm_min == 30) {
et = 1;
}

if (local_time.tm_hour % 12) {
if (local_time.tm_hour < 12)
matin = 1;
else if (local_time.tm_hour < 17)
aprem = 1;
else if (local_time.tm_hour == 17 && moins)
aprem = 1;
else
soir = 1;
}

if (local_time.tm_min == 15 && moins)
le = 1;

if (local_time.tm_hour % 12 == 0) {
heure = 0;
s = 0;
} else if (local_time.tm_hour % 12 == 1) {
s = 0;
}

printf("Il est ");

if (local_time.tm_hour == 12)
printf("midi");
else
printf("%s", nums[local_time.tm_hour % 12]);

if (heure)
printf(" heure");

if (s)
printf("s");

if (moins)
printf(" moins");

if (et)
printf(" et");

if (le)
printf(" le");

if (local_time.tm_min)
printf(" %s", nums[local_time.tm_min]);

if (matin)
printf(" du matin");
else if (aprem)
printf(" de l'apres-midi");
else if (soir)
printf(" du soir");

printf(".\n");
return 0;
}


(The #if 0 stuff was just for testing different time values through the command-line).

• Props for attempting a C answer :) Look on the bright side -- it's probably shorter than it would have been in Java! – a spaghetto Sep 28 '15 at 22:14