# Print the alphabet without using each vowel

Inspiration: in 1939, a man named Ernest Vincent Wright wrote a novel called Gadsby without using the letter 'e'.

Your task is to write a set of (up to 5) programs in any language (which has a text-based syntax*) to output all 26 letters of the alphabet in order. However for each vowel aeiou, at least one of the programs must not include any occurrence of the vowel.

So there must be

• a program that does not use 'a' or 'A' anywhere in the syntax of the program.
• a program that does not use 'e' or 'E' anywhere in the syntax of the program.
• a program that does not use 'i'  or 'I' anywhere in the syntax of the program.
• a program that does not use 'o' or 'O' anywhere in the syntax of the program.
• a program that does not use 'u' or 'U' anywhere in the syntax of the program.

All of them must output abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

The winner shall be the solution where the length of all programs is the shortest.

* since the constraint wouldn't be much of a challenge in Piet or Whitespace

Current rankings (06 Mar 2014):

## The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

## Language Name, N bytes


where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes


If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes


You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes


/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 196898; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(a) {
});
comment_page = 1;
}
});
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(c) {
if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
});
else process();
}
});
}

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

function getAuthorName(a) {
return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
var valid = [];

var body = a.body;
if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
});

var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
if (match)
valid.push({
user: getAuthorName(a),
size: +match[2],
language: match[1],
});
else console.log(body);
});

valid.sort(function (a, b) {
var aB = a.size,
bB = b.size;
return aB - bB
});

var languages = {};
var place = 1;
var lastSize = null;
var lastPlace = 1;
valid.forEach(function (a) {
if (a.size != lastSize)
lastPlace = place;
lastSize = a.size;
++place;

.replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)

var lang = a.language;
lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();

languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
});

var langs = [];
for (var lang in languages)
if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
langs.push(languages[lang]);

langs.sort(function (a, b) {
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
return 0;
});

for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
{
var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
var lang = langs[i];
language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
.replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
language = jQuery(language);
jQuery("#languages").append(language);
}

}
body {
text-align: left !important;
display: block !important;
}

width: 290px;
float: left;
}

#language-list {
width: 500px;
float: left;
}

font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<div id="language-list">
<h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
<table class="language-list">
<tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
<tbody id="languages">

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
</tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
<tbody id="language-template">
</tbody>
</table>

• @w0lf: No, it says "up to 5 programs" and "length of all programs", which I read as "there can be only one program and its length counts in this case". – schnaader Apr 24 '12 at 11:09
• @PeterTaylor: You don't think having to avoid using vowels in your syntax is a unique challenge? As a JS programmer, it's especially interesting :) – mellamokb Apr 24 '12 at 13:51
• Are newlines acceptable in the output (i.e. one per character)? I can shorten some of my code if that is the case... – Gaffi Apr 24 '12 at 21:17
• Is uppercase output allowed? – Erik the Outgolfer Sep 16 '16 at 11:09
• I'm the OP. Uppercase not allowed. – shamp00 Sep 17 '16 at 5:21

## PHP, HTML (50)

No 'aeiou':

&#97;bcd&#101;fgh&#105;jklmn&#111;pqrst&#117;vwxyz


abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

• @joar, I can't tell if you're trying to be humorous, it seems to have been lost on me. – zzzzBov Apr 27 '12 at 13:39
• @joar, it's not magic, but it is valid PHP. You can't pipe anything through the PHP interpreter, you need to pipe valid characters in the correct encoding. HTML happens to be valid PHP because it's used as a subset of the language. – zzzzBov Apr 27 '12 at 13:53
• Nope, HTML is a subset of PHP, PHP includes everything that HTML can do, in addition to other capabilities. PHP has to parse the entire contents of the page to find the <? tags, so the HTML is parsed, and then passed through. Hamlet can be piped through PHP in the same way that you can pipe Hamlet through an HTML file and have it be HTML. Comments are not the appropriate location for these extended discussions, so send me an email if you wish to resolve your confusion. – zzzzBov Apr 27 '12 at 14:16
• PHP does not parse the HTML, it scans it for the next PHP block start tag. see the definitions of parse. – joar Apr 27 '12 at 14:43
• PHP does indeed output the text. The problem is, this PHP program doesn't output the whole alphabet. It outputs some of the letters, along with various other characters like #. The entity decoding is done by HTML. You could use html_entity_decode to get around this (of course it has 3 vowels, so you'd need to deal with that). – Matthew Flaschen Apr 29 '12 at 3:32

## Postscript, 46 45

(\141bcd\145fgh\151jklmn\157pqrst\165vwxyz)=

• You can shorten that by one character by removing the space. – Joey Apr 26 '12 at 9:00

## Scala,38+17=55

No 'aeio':

'\u0061't\u006f'z'm\u0061p pr\u0069nt


No 'u':

'a'to'z'map print


Output: abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

• Your answer only satisfies 'e' and 'u'. You need to add a version that does not use 'a', 'i' and 'o'. – shamp00 Apr 26 '12 at 9:55
• @shamp00: +1 Now fixed – Prince John Wesley Apr 26 '12 at 12:18
• You still need the no 'u' version too. The task is to have as many programs as necessary to cover all 5 vowels. Then you add the lengths together for the total score. – shamp00 Apr 26 '12 at 13:09
• Regarding what @shamp00 says, just add back in your ('b'-1).toChar to'z'map print and you're good to go! – Gaffi Apr 27 '12 at 12:23
• @Gaffi: ok. let me add my original version. – Prince John Wesley Apr 28 '12 at 1:58

## Ruby, 47 characters

(1) Only contains 'a' and 'u', 24 chars:

puts [*97..122].pack'c*'


(2) Only contains 'o' and 'i', 23 chars:

$><<[*97.chr..'z'].join  There's a slight difference in output in that the first one adds a newline and the second doesn't. Could add the newline to the second at a cost of 4 characters; removing it from the first would be harder. # Brainfuck, 25 bytes One byte improvement c/o Sp3000. +[+<+<+[>]<-<+<+]>[+>+.<]  Try it online! The initial bit +[+<+<+[>]<-<+<+] initializes the tape to: [0, 106, 106, 0, 230, 96, 0, 135, 0] ^  This is an ideal tape (as 230 is 256-26). ### 26 bytes --[->-[<]>+>-]>[+++<<+.>>]  Try it online! Exactly one byte per letter. The initial bit --[->-[<]>+>-] initializes the tape to: [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 96, 0, 178, 0] ^  178 is conveniently 256 - 26·3. Alternatives -[-[+>--<<<]>>>]>[->-.++<] +[+[->++<<]>>+>+]<+[-<+.>]  • 25: +[+<+<+[>]<-<+<+]>[+>+.<] – Sp3000 Sep 19 '16 at 0:23 • My pruning logic seems off - it was detected as an infinite loop. I may need to re-crunch some results >.< – primo Sep 19 '16 at 1:30 # JavaScript (single program, no vowels whatsoever) 1049992 90 Edit 1: []["s\157rt"]["c\157nstr\165ct\157r"]('\141l\145rt("\141bcd\145fgh\151jklmn\157pqrst\165vwxyz")')() Edit 2: 3[$="c\157nstr\165ct\157r"][$]('\141l\145rt("\141bcd\145fgh\151jklmn\157pqrst\165vwxyz")')() 3[$="c\157nstr\165ct\157r"][$]('\141l\145rt\141bcd\145fgh\151jklmn\157pqrst\165vwxyz')()  Edit 1: Previously used "filter" as my array trigger to access global object, reduced it to "sort" for a saving of 5 chars. Edit 2: Reduced initial array to 3 to obtain constructor primitive and reused constructor recursively to shave off 7 chars, many thanks to @Firefly for the inspiration. Edit 3: Reduced (" and )" in single-quoted string to backticks, shaving a further 2 characters. ## C, 136115 104 characteres A C program must have a main function. So my code is valid, except for these a and i. Prints a newline at the end. Can save some characters by removing it. No e,i,o, 50 chars: f(x){putchar(x?123-x:10),x--&&f(x);} main(){f(0);}  No a,u, 54 chars: f(x){printf("%c",x?123-x:10),x--&&f(x);} main(){f(26);}  • "A C program must have a main function" - This SO question taught me this isn't true, see my answer :) – schnaader Apr 24 '12 at 11:11 • @schnaader, the ANSI C standard says "The function called at program startup is named main". Your code does work, but I'm not sure how portable it is (not that the question requires portability). Anyway, I'll stick to main. – ugoren Apr 24 '12 at 12:21 Javascript (139 chars), logging to console: Uses no 'aeou' (95 chars): q=''+{};w=q[1];this['c'+w+'ns'+w+'l'+q[4]]['l'+w+'g']('\x61bcd\x65fghijklmn\x6fpqrst\x75vwxyz')  Uses no 'i' (44 chars): console.log('abcdefgh\x69jklmnopqrstuvwxyz')  • I count here 95 and 79 characters, respectively. – Gaffi Apr 24 '12 at 21:12 • @Gaffi Thanks haha. I wrapped it in double quotes and used .length to get the length. Of course the \x75 and such were counting as one character haha, oops. – Paul Apr 24 '12 at 21:52 • It happens. :-) – Gaffi Apr 24 '12 at 22:21 ## PHP, 47 All credits to mellamokb <?="\x61bcd\x65fgh\x69jklmn\x6fpqrst\x75vwxyz";  • You can shorten by using string concatenation instead of exiting tags: <?=chr(97).'bcd'.chr(101).... Also, you can make even shorter by using the hex escape sequences <?="\x61bcd\x65...". Here's some examples of alternative shorter solutions, the last is the shortest at 47 characters (note also that you can safely leave the final closing tag off to save 2 chars): ideone.com/7aAQh – mellamokb Apr 25 '12 at 17:03 ## Factor, 264 characters No ae, 60 characters: USING: io ; "\u000061bcd\u000065fghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" print  No io, 102 characters: USE: eval "USE: \u000069\u00006f \"abcdefgh\u000069jklmn\u00006fpqrstuvwxyz\" pr\u000069nt" eval( -- )  No u, 102 characters: FROM: math.ranges => [a,b] ; FROM: io => print ; FROM: strings => >string ; 97 122 [a,b] >string print  Every language, in the previous answers, uses less than 200 characters. Factor is the only language to use more than 200 characters and to use 3 programs. Factor is difficult, because outputting without io is a challenge, and programming without u is almost impossible. The first 2 programs are variations of USE: io "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" print  Alternatives to io are scarce; formatting still needs i and o, and prettyprint needs i. I saw string evaluation in a Python answer, and took the hint. With eval, I can escape away i and o, but I need a and e in eval, and u in \uxxxxxx escapes. The hardest challenge is to remove u. This means no USE:, USING:, \uxxxxxx, nor sequences. My best program without u needs all of aeio. I would like a Factor program without aeu, but my only way to remove ae is to use u. • Sorry, wasn't thinking straight! RENAME: each-integer math => # 26 [ 65 + write1 ] # – fede s. Dec 1 '17 at 17:34 ## Perl 5.10+, 8 + 22 = 30 chars No e, i, o, u: say a..z  No a, i, o, u: s//"s\x61y \x61..z"/ee  Both of these need the -M5.010 switch (which is considered free) to enable the say feature. For older perls, it can be replaced with print for an extra four chars (and loss of trailing newline in output): print a..z s//"pr\x69nt \x61..z"/ee  Bash 34 characters This is my 34 characters long bash snippet, close to marinus snippet but shorter : /*/?ch?$'\145ch\157 {\x61..z}'|sh


## Perl (25 24 ) (18?) (no wowels, little cheating)

script.pl contains:

$"="";s//@{["\x61"..z]}/  it has to be executed this way: echo | perl -p script.pl  or echo | perl -pe '$"="";s//@{["\x61"..z]}/'


If you don't mind spaces between letters in the alphabet, it can be shortened to 18 characters:

s//@{["\x61"..z]}/


($" variable defines separator to be used for printing arrays, space is default) ### UPDATES: • s/^/ -> s// • You could whipe (useless) pipes! perl -pe 's//@{["\x61"..z]}/' <<<'' – F. Hauri Jul 8 '14 at 22:46 ## Tcl, 49 chars p\165ts \141bcd\145fgh\151jklmn\157pqrst\165vwxyz  Yeah, \ substitution works for commands. (And all other kinds of substitution as well) • demo – sergiol May 23 '17 at 22:30 • The shortest iterative algorithm I can devise is longer, even before applying the no vowels restriction, having 51 bytes: while {[incr n]<27} {puts [format %c [expr$n+96]]} – sergiol May 23 '17 at 22:40
• Shorter without restriction is 45:time {puts [format %c [expr [incr i]+96]]} 26 – sergiol Jul 21 '17 at 18:39

## Matlab: 11 characters

['' 97:122]
% Or equivalently
['' 97]:'z'


If it is allowed to output more than just the alphabet, this can be reduced to just 7:

'':'z'

• Very nice! Contatenating '' to convert to string – Luis Mendo Jul 26 '15 at 3:51

# Javascript, 96

No "aeiu"

throw('\x61bcd\x65fgh\x69jklmnopqrst\x75vwxyz')


No "o"

eval("thr\x6fw('abcdefghijklmn\x6fpqrstuvwxyz')")


Run it from console

### Firefox

• How do I run this? I can't get it to work with JSFiddle, nor in onload(). – shamp00 Aug 15 '13 at 15:52
• @shamp00 You can run it from you browsers console, i edited the answer and added 2 screenshots =) – C5H8NNaO4 Aug 16 '13 at 6:06

# Fission, 21 bytes

~MR' @'~~~~~~
S[+!
*


Control flow starts at R with a right-going atom. First we set the mass to 32 with '<space>. @ swaps mass and energy. ' sets the mass to 96, so our atom is now (96,32). We decrement the energy seven times with ~ to get (96,25) (note that the code is toroidal). M redirects the atom downwards and [ to the right. We're now on the second line. + increments the mass, the ! prints the corresponding character. By doing this repeatedly we print the alphabet starting at a. As long as the energy is still positive, the S will let the atom pass straight through, such that we keep looping through the second line. However, while doing so it will also decrement the energy. Once the energy is 0 (and we've printed z), S will instead deflect the atom downwards, where it hits *, which terminates the program.

# Cardinal, 22 20 chars

%n->,#~n'!@
b ^+< y


output:

Executing program..

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Execution complete.
>


# Mathematica, 61 bytes

Yeah, total thread necro. Just wanted to see if I could do it at all! (Mathematica command names tend to be pretty verbose and thus vowel-heavy....)

Each of the two commands

Alphabet[]


and

Union@@(StringSplit[#,""]&/@WordList[][[443;;692]])


outputs a list of the 26 lowercase letters in order. StringSplit[#,""]& splits its input string at every occurrence of "", that is, between every character (hence accomplishes the same as the command Characters@#, but without that nasty "a" or "e"). This is applied to a set of 250 words, namely the 443rd to 692th words of the built-in word list. (The 443rd word, "adequateness", is needed for its "q", while the 692nd word, "aftershock", is needed for its "k". None of the first 427 words contains an "x", and the 428th word, "add-on", has an unfortunate hyphen; so we had to start over to find a contiguous block that works.) Finally, Union removes repetitions and sorts the list to boot.

## Python shell, 94 78 chars

It prints the alphabet when running in an interactive shell (which prints the expression it evaluates).
Python isn't the tool for this task. Printing requires print, loop constructs require in or while, so i is quite a problem.

Both these expressions evaluate to the a-z string. The first doesn't use i,o, the second doesn't use a,e,u

"%c"*26%tuple(range(97,123))
''.join([chr(ord(c)-1)+c for c in'bdfhjlnprtvxz'])


Brute-force approach, 110 chars:

"%c"*26%(97,98,99,100,101,102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122)

• eval's got no i. – boothby Apr 25 '12 at 1:54
• @boothby Yes it does: evil. There. – Konrad Rudolph Apr 25 '12 at 9:03
• Languages are defined by their implementation. A Python shell is not a normal implementation of Python, so it's a "different language". meta.codegolf.stackexchange.com/a/7844/34718 – mbomb007 Sep 16 '16 at 16:15

# JavaScript (Node.js), 32113 bytes

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Try it online!

## Perl 5, 31 bytes

30 bytes code + 1 for -p.

Uses no vowels.

$"="";$_=<@{["\141".."\172"]}>


Try it online!

# Java (OpenJDK 8), 137 bytes

$->""+($=97)+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$+ ++$ Try it online! Similar to another answer of mine in Java. (Ab-)uses the lack of a "no input" rule. • Brilliant! Upvoted both your answers. Very original, especially for a Java answer. – Kevin Cruijssen Sep 13 '17 at 14:00 • @KevinCruijssen Thank you! I've had a hard time making the first one (the other one), but this one was very, very similar. – Olivier Grégoire Sep 13 '17 at 14:12 # Japt, 2 bytes ;C  Test it here We can now use languages made after the question was posted, right? # Charcoal, 1 byte β  Try it online! In Charcoal, β is a predefined variable containing the lowercase alphabet, so no vowels there. ## D no 'u' (64 chars) import std.stdio;void main(){for(char c=96;c++<'z';){write(c);}}  ## D only i (92 chars) mixin("imp\157rt std.stdi\157;v\157id m\141in(){f\157r(ch\141r c;c++<'z';){writ\145(c);}}");  abusing the mixin and octal escape in string literals • What about the complementary program(s) that don't use a,e,i,o? – mellamokb Apr 25 '12 at 12:52 • @mellamokb check now :) – ratchet freak Apr 25 '12 at 13:24 • You still need a version with no i. – shamp00 Apr 27 '12 at 15:45 # BASH: 16 + 32 = 48 characters Here's some inspiration to all you shell-lovers: Using a, i (no e, o, u): 16 characters printf %q {a..z}  Using e, o (no a, i, u): 32 characters $0<<<\$'echo {\x61..z}|tr -d " "'


works well, providing you've set your computer up with an automatic

#!bin/bash


I'm sure someone out there knows how to un-vowel this!

## C# – 278/149

### Variant 1 – Full standalone programs

A and I are unavoidable here because of class and static.

Without U: 81 chars:

class C{static void Main(){for(int x=65;x<91;++x)System.Console.Write((char)x);}}


Without E: 96 chars:

class C{static void Main(){for(int x=65;x<91;++x)Syst\u0065m.Consol\u0065.Writ\u0065((char)x);}}


Without O: 101 chars:

class C{static int Main(){System.C\u006fns\u006fle.Write("abcdefghijklmn\x6fpqrstuvwxyz");return 0;}}


Total (with A, I missing): 278

### Variant 2 – Pure code

Without A, E, I, O: 97 chars

Syst\u0065m.C\u006fns\u006fl\u0065.Wr\u0069t\u0065("\u0061bcd\u0065fgh\x69jklmn\x6fpqrstuvwxyz");


Without U: 52 chars

for(int x=65;x<91;++x)System.Console.Write((char)x);


total: 149

• class C{static void Main(){for(var x='@';x++<'Z';)System.Console.Write(x);}} shorter one for first program. – tia Apr 25 '13 at 12:50

# Befunge, 26

>"">1+:"z"v
:,  ^      @_


Minimizing whitespace is part of the challenge of Befunge, so I included it in the character count. It might be possible to take out some of that whitespace, but the instructions themselves seem minimal.

• You can save quite a few characters. The first > is unneeded and you can arrange on lines. Also, Befunge 98 has ', the fetch character. I suggest doing this: 1st line: 'backtickv, second line: :,>1+:'zbacktick!j@ for a total count of 16 chars. – Justin Dec 12 '13 at 7:05

Smalltalk (Squeak 4.x) 78 chars

Since we program by sending messages to objects, and that most messages are made of english words, this is a real challenge in Smalltalk.

However it is possible to exploit this curiosity: we can concatenate a String and a ByteArray with binary selector ,

'',#[97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122]


We can also exploit arithmetic on ByteArray to shorten to 78 chars

'',(#[0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25]+97)


Now can we write a loop without using to:do: whileTrue: repeat?
Yes we can, with recursion, but we need to stop the recursion with a test, and can we without using one of ifTrue: ifFalse: or: and:?
Yes we can just implement the message of our choice in True/False.
Let's see how far we can go...

We can't use the receiver of a message, self has a vowel: so we need a message with two parameters, say x:z:, sent to any object (9 chars)

0x:''z:97


we implement x:z: message in Object (38 chars - 47 total)

x:x z:z z<123?[^0x:x,(#[0]+z)z:z+1].^x


we implement ? in class False (2 chars - 49 total):

?x


we implement ? in class True: (6 chars - 55 total)

?x^x x


But now, how to evauate the block without sending the message value (3 vowels)...
The best I could was to implement x in class BlockClosure: (16 chars - 71 total)

x<primitive:201>
`

But that still consumes 2 vowels... And we're not far from original 78...

I still got a nice obfuscation - golfing in Smalltalk is really contre-nature ;)