So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;

function getAnswers() {
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;

function getComments() {
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();


var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
    else console.log(body);
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);

body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;

table td {
  padding: 5px;
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <tbody id="languages">

<div id="answer-list">
  <table class="answer-list">
    <tbody id="answers">

<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>

  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 29, 2015 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$
    May 20, 2018 at 10:20

923 Answers 923

21 22
24 25

Genie, 28 bytes

File hello.gs:

        print "Hello, World!"

(tab indented, needs final newline)

Compile & run:

$ valac hello.gs
$ ./hello
Hello, World!

Pilot, 15 bytes

t:Hello, World!

(no trailing newline is ok for the Pilot implementation I used)

CP/M nostalgia...

A>type hello.plt
t:Hello, World!
A>do pilot/pr hello
SuperSUB V1.1

PILOT/P version 2.5, 02/26/84
Translating: HELLO

No file
InterSystems Pascal v - 4.0
HELLO        1---
VLENGTH     27-
MEMAVAIL    28--
LENGTH      31-
INDEX       33-
POS         34-
UCASE       35-
LCASE       36-
DELETE      37-
COPY        38-
INSERT      39--
REPLACE     40-
CONCAT      41-
STR         42-
IVALUE      43-
HALT        44-
ISALPHA     45-
ISUPPER     46-
ISLOWER     47-
ISDIGIT     48-
ISSPACE     49--
TOUPPER     50-
TOLOWER     51-
KEYIN       52-
DWRITE      54-
CONSTAT     55-
CONCHAR     56-
GOTOXY      57-
VAL         58-
RANDOM      59--
RND         63-
INITIALI    69-----
WAIT       102---
MATCH      124-------
HELLO      185-
0 compilation error(s).

Pascal/Z run-time support interface ASMBLE v-7d

0 errors.  312 symbols generated.  Space for 2819 more symbols.
4275 characters are stored in 44 macros.
1680 bytes of program code.

LINK version 2b
Load mode
Generate a COM file
Lo = 0100   Hi = 1A32   Start = 0172   Save  26 blocks

Hello, World!


COMAL, 20 bytes

1print"Hello, World!

CP/M nostalgia...


         (C) Copyright 1987
  COMAL Users Group, U.S.A. Limited

1print"Hello, World!
Hello, World!

End of program   


WhoScript, 19 bytes

1"Hello, World!";pf

Not nearly as much fun as the full version:

# 48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 57 6f 72 6c 64 21 
@ push the ASCII values of the characters "Hello, World!" to the stack

psychic_paper flush
@ print all values on the stack as ASCII characters

Freelang, 291 bytes

A lot of whitespace, but it's an assembly language for a virtual machine. I'm pretty sure this won't compile without the indents.

  ." Hello world! " p
  : p ( s -- )
    [@] 4 * swap incw swap
      go[<=0] :e
        dec swap [@b]
          go[==0] :s
            writorb ::z
            go :n
          inc swap
          go :w
  z: halt

lang5, 17 bytes

lang5 is a combination of APL and Forth (Hello World doesn't show off any of the APL bits)

"Hello, World!" .

SuperX++, 37 bytes

From the web site:

Superx++ is an object-oriented language that is entirely based on XML's syntactical structure. Superx++ conforms with the XML version 1.0 specification as published on the W3C web site. Programming in XML itself has great potential and Superx++ pushes the envelope!

This program comes from http://xplusplus.sourceforge.net/FAQ.htm#hellow

<xpp><xout>Hello, World!</xout></xpp>

o:XML, 48 bytes

From the web site:

o:XML is a complete object oriented programming language, with features including polymorphism, function overloading, exception handling, threads and more. The syntax is fully compliant XML. With o:XML, object-oriented paradigms can be leveraged to the maximum, while data and code remains in a standard format. With o:XML there is no 'impedance mismatch' when developing XML web-applications, tools and systems. Furthermore o:XML integrates seamlessly with most popular Java platforms, including Java Servlets, Struts, Ant, BSF and Spring 2.0.

This program comes from http://www.xml.com/pub/a/2004/07/21/oxml.html

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<o:do>Hello, World!</o:do>

Mouse16, 16 bytes

I finally made it turing-complete!

"Hello, World!"!

Boring, I know.

If you want somewhat interesting, then there's this, which runs Python from inside Mouse, for 31 bytes:

"!!PY!!print('Hello, World!')"`

The to-be interesting bits of Mouse aren't implemented yet, but we have control structs, so...


Pike, 35 bytes

A fast OOP scripting language with familiar C-style syntax.

int main(){write("Hello, World!");}

The optional return 0; is left off, because it runs without it.

In the REPL, the main declaration can be left off.

Pythonish, but with C syntax. OO-enabled, and also inherits from PHP (the good parts), Perl and (duh) C/C++, but Pike isn't halfassed about OOP like C++ is.

This can be compiled into ANSI C or C++ with a #define (and the #include, for standards compilance) for 113 bytes:

#ifndef __PIKE__
#define write(x) printf(x)
int main(){write("Hello, World!");return 0;}

No warnings with gcc -Wall -pedantic! Only a few more defines are needed to make almost any Pike into ANSI C. :D


Falcon, 16 bytes

I'm sad that the last update to this language was in 2010 :( it looks so cool! it's still indev!!

>"Hello, World!"

It gets its syntax from Python and PHP, most noticeably.


A-Ray, 16 bytes

Any new language should be put here just for the sake of being put here...

p"Hello, World!"

Pylons, 16

Toggles string mode with " and then pushes "Hello, World!" to the stack, then uses c to print the whole stack as a string.

"Hello, World!"c

For 14 bytes, thought possibly cheating, so it's not my main answer,


with Hello, World! as a command line arg.

I don't have an online interpreter yet, but if you download the repo and pass the command line args to main.py and the program to stdin, it'll run.


jq, 17 bytes

(15 characters code + 2 characters command line options.)

"Hello, World!"

(jq being a JSON processor filter, for this task you have to specify the -n (null input) and -r (raw output) options.)

Sample run:

bash-4.3$ jq -nr '"Hello, World!"'
Hello, World!

On-line test (Passing -r through URL is not supported – check Raw Output yourself.)


Y, 16 bytes

Try it here!

"Hello, World!"p


"Hello, World!"g

The former prints everything, and the latter prints one thing. In each case, the single entity on the stack is the string "Hello, World!".


bAdkOde, 59 bytes

I modified the example given on the language's website. Pushes the ASCII values in reverse order, then loops to print them.


Vimscript, 17 bytes

ec"Hello, World!"
  • \$\begingroup\$ You can remove the colon to save one byte ;) \$\endgroup\$
    – wefwefa3
    Aug 30, 2015 at 20:32

Mmmm(), 1583 bytes


A semi-golfed version of the "Hello, World!" program I wrote for the esolangs article a while back.


Nemerle, 38 bytes

System.Console.Write("Hello, World!");

Description from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemerle

Nemerle's most notable feature is the ability to mix styles of programming that are object-oriented and functional. Programs may be structured using object-oriented concepts such as classes and namespaces, while methods can (optionally) be written in a functional style. Other notable features include:

  • strong type inference
  • a flexible metaprogramming subsystem (using macros)
  • full support for object-oriented programming (OOP), in the style of C#, Java, and C++
  • full support for functional programming, in the style of ML, OCaml, and Haskell, with these features:
    • higher-order functions
    • pattern matching
    • algebraic types
    • local functions
    • tuples and anonymous types
    • partial application of functions

The metaprogramming system allows for great compiler extensibility, embedding domain-specific languages, partial evaluation, and aspect-oriented programming, taking a high-level approach to lift as much of the burden as possible from programmers. The language combines all Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) standard features, including parametric polymorphism, lambdas, extension methods etc. Accessing the libraries included in the .NET or Mono platforms is as easy as in C#.


Reng v.1, 22 bytes

I proudly present to you my new 2D language, Reng! It's a lot like ><>, and many of the commands are similar. However, Reng features a lot of more, erm, features. Here is the code!

"!dlroW ,olleH"!|o?!|~

This pushes each of the character codes in the string !dlroW ,olleH first. Then, ! jumps into a loop. o outputs a charcter, and ? activates the next character iff the top of the stack is zero. This does not happen untill there are no characters left. When this happens, the mirror is skipped and the end character is met, ~.

Here is a visual representation of the code, which can be found here:



ForceLang, 24 bytes

io.write "Hello, World!"

Or, which is the same length:

gui.show "Hello, World!"
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Looks like Lua. Isn't Lua, is ForceLang. \$\endgroup\$
    – cat
    Feb 29, 2016 at 5:11

Mathcad, 18 bytes #

(or 15 bytes or 13 bytes depending upon one's tastes)

enter image description here

18 bytes would seem to be more in keeping with the spirit of the game, in that the user only has to type "s=" to get the answer, whereas the other two options involve the user actually typing Hello, World! themselves.

However, such considerations can get a little confusing sometimes in Mathcad, as the "source" file is also normally the "stdout". This is because the Mathcad allows text, mathematical expressions, programs, plots and results to be mixed on the same worksheet (it's often helpful to regard Mathcad as a virtual whiteboard or document with live expressions).


Cy, 21 18 bytes

"Hello, World!" :<

Cy is a new language I just made. It is stack-based/postfix, so the string "Hello, World!" must be pushed to the stack, then output it with the printing shortcut :<.

This is the first language I have made that was not inspired by code golf, but of course I'm still going to post in it.


Pylongolf, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"~

Push Hello, World! into the stack then print it.


Constant, 115 bytes


(the newline is unnecessary) Ungolfed:

ppp * eee-pP;
_fao * R;
_fo + pp;
_coo + p;
eec * ppc + ef;
_oZ + eeeepc;
_o + eeef * pf;
_o + pf;
_ozeeef * pc + lf;

Try it out here!

This is a very natural program, except that numbers are not composed of the conventional digits, but rather constants such as p (pi) and e (euler's number). _ is the last expression, f is floor, c is ceil, and o is character output.

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Nice answer. Constant looks almost as weird as NTFJ. \$\endgroup\$
    – Riker
    Apr 4, 2016 at 22:40
  • \$\begingroup\$ @EasterlyIrk Then my mission has been accomplished. ^_^ \$\endgroup\$ Apr 4, 2016 at 22:41

META, 410 bytes

Try it here!


This is another heckuva program. You want to know what it does, I'm sure. First, here's a nicer-looking version:


The basis of META is that it selects characters from the source code and performs operations of them. ><^v move the selection pointer around, {} allow for an extra level of eval and :;.,!? perform 6 different operations.

Let c be the character in question, and @c be its charcode.

  • : yields atob(atob(c + c + "==") + c + "==")
  • ; yields atob(c + c + "==")
  • . yields char(127 - @atob(c + c + "=="))
  • , yields atob(c + char(127 - @c) + "==")
  • ! yields char(@c >> 2 ^ 94)
  • ? yields char((@c * 3 >> 3) + (@c >> 5))

Each time a char is yielded, it's pushed to a string, which is eval'd, then eval'd again.

The charset yielded by each character is not complete, so we cannot simply use these characters. The use of {} is mandatory for a lot of characters, which are constructed in a JSF**k-esque way.

A full explanation will take a ridiculously long time, and now I have to breathe some nice air.

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Are you sure this is META, not .kill() Jr.? \$\endgroup\$
    – Riker
    Apr 16, 2016 at 15:30

Molecule, 24 bytes (UTF-16)


Molecule files written must be written in UTF-16 for it to properly work.
This basically uses the string compression method.


Pyke, 14 bytes

"Hello, World!

Try it here!


Batsh, 23 bytes

print("Hello, World!");

Try it online!

One-sentence description

Batsh is a language which compiles to bash and Windows Batch, thereby providing effortless cross-platform support for shell scripts, without additional dependencies.


Auo, 21 bytes

i.o:['Hello, World!']
21 22
24 25

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