520
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
21
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 13:56
  • 7
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 28, 2015 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 29, 2015 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$
    – DELETE_ME
    May 20, 2018 at 10:20

984 Answers 984

1
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2
\$\begingroup\$

Alpha AXP machine language on OSF/1, 40 bytes

0x00:   d2200004    bsr a1, 0x14(zero)    # Set a1 to pointer of string
0x04:   6c6c6548    "Hello, World!\0\0\0"
0x08:   57202c6f
0x0c:   646c726f
0x10:   00000021
0x14:   43e09400    addq    zero, 0x4, v0 # Select write() syscall
0x18:   43e03410    addq    zero, 0x1, a0 # stdout
0x1c:   43e1b412    addq    zero, 0xd, a2 # string length
0x20:   00000083    call_pal    callsys   # write(1, str, len)
0x24:   6bfa8001    ret zero, (ra), 1     # return

To try this on a suitable machine or emulator, compile and run the following C program

int main[]={0xd2200004,0x6c6c6548,0x57202c6f,0x646c726f,0x21,
            0x43e09400,0x43e03410,0x43e1b412,0x83,0x6bfa8001};
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

DEC VAX machine language on UNIX v8 or 4.3BSD, 40 39 bytes

00: 00 00                                 ;entry mask
02: dd 0d                pushl $0xd       ;len of string
04: df ef 10 00 00 00    pushal $0x1a     ;addr of string
0a: dd 01                pushl $0x1       ;file descriptor=1
0c: 9a 04 50             movzbl $0x4,%r0  ;select write() syscall
0f: fb 03 ef ff ff ff ff calls $3,0x15    ;call syscall
16: 04                   ret
17: bc 50                chmk %r0         ;syscall
19: 04                   ret
1a: 48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 "Hello, World"
    57 6f 72 6c 64 21

The entry mask specifies which regs are saved and other runtime characteristics of the procedure. Because of the way syscalls work on VAX, the golfiest way to make one (as far I know) is a two step procedure. I have also overlapped the end of the "call" instruction with the start of the entry mask of the syscall procedure.

In honor of the 39th anniversary of mullender.c you can try out the above code by compiling and running the following C program on an actual or emulated VAX.

char main[]={0x00,0x00,0xdd,0x0d,0xdf,0xef,0x10,0x00,0x00,0x00,0xdd,0x01
,0x9a,0x04,0x50,0xfb,0x03,0xef,0xff,0xff,0xff,0xff,0x04,0xbc,0x50,0x04,
0x48,0x65,0x6c,0x6c,0x6f,0x2c,0x20,0x57,0x6f,0x72,0x6c,0x64,0x21};
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

m4, 13 bytes

Hello, World!

Try it online!

Trivial solution!

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Acc!!, 61 bytes

195657271854030749545429
Count i while _ {
Write _%83+32
_/83

Try it online!

Stores the string Hello, World! as an integer in base-83 then uses a loop to decode and print it.

Note that Acc!! doesn't automatically close braces but due to a bug(?) in the official interpreter you are able to omit the closing brace if you don't use the associated loop variable.


Due to limitations of the scoreboard snippet, the title of this post is incorrect. The correct name of this language is Acc!! with italics.

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

JSL - JMP Scripting Language, 15 bytes

In this challenge the most difficult part was to check whether JSL had no submissions yet (977 answers on 33 pages) =))

"Hello, World!"

Outputs "Hello, World!" to the console.

\$\endgroup\$
3
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ You can search on a challenge page like this: inquestion:this is:a <lang name> (replace <lang name> with your language of choice). Not perfect but works for most challenges and languages. \$\endgroup\$
    – Bubbler
    Apr 21 at 22:53
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ Also, I'm pretty sure your code should be "Hello, World!" (with a comma and uppercase W)? \$\endgroup\$
    – Bubbler
    Apr 21 at 22:54
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ @Bubbler fixed that and thank you for the tip! \$\endgroup\$ Apr 22 at 6:54
2
\$\begingroup\$

Clarity, 16 bytes

Source:

"Hello, World!"

Output:

Hello, World!

Try it online!

Works in the Clarity console, outputs "Hello, World!". If you want to output it on the blockchain, which prints a lengthier output though, do this:

(print "Hello, World!")

Output:

Events emitted
{"contract_event":{"contract_identifier":"ST000000000000000000002AMW42H.contract-2","topic":"print","value":"\"Hello, World!\""},"type":"contract_event"}
New contributor
matronator is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering. Check out our Code of Conduct.
\$\endgroup\$
3
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to Code Golf SE \$\endgroup\$
    – noodle man
    2 days ago
  • \$\begingroup\$ @noodleman thanks! \$\endgroup\$
    – matronator
    2 days ago
  • \$\begingroup\$ @WheatWizard Oops, sorry, fixed it. \$\endgroup\$
    – matronator
    2 days ago
1
\$\begingroup\$

C++, 59 bytes

#include <iostream>
int main(){std::cout<<"Hello, World!";}
\$\endgroup\$
6
  • \$\begingroup\$ Isn't the newline optional? \$\endgroup\$
    – jrich
    Aug 28, 2015 at 14:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ @UndefinedFunction try it. It will not work without a new line \$\endgroup\$
    – galexite
    Aug 28, 2015 at 17:36
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Isn't printf smaller? #include <cstdio>? \$\endgroup\$
    – galexite
    Aug 28, 2015 at 17:37
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @georgeunix My comment referred to a previous version, in which it read cout<<"Hello, World!\n". The \n was removed, since a newline was not required after the output. \$\endgroup\$
    – jrich
    Aug 28, 2015 at 17:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ Oh OK, sorry for that @UndefinedFunction \$\endgroup\$
    – galexite
    Aug 28, 2015 at 17:39
1
\$\begingroup\$

Stackstack, 20 Bytes

This is a stack-based language not focused on golfing! Looks similar to Forth, and was made two years ago.

"Hello, World!"print
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

STATA, 17 bytes

di"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Enema, 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[DZBO]

How it works

"!dlroW ,olleH" Push those characters (including a null byte) on the stack.
[               Infinite loop:
  D               Duplicate the topmost element on the stack.
  Z               If it is non-zero, skip the next instruction.
    B             Break out of the loop.
  O             Output as a character.
]
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

dc, 16 bytes

[Hello, World!]p

I can't think of any way to get this one shorter.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Element, 17 bytes

Hello\,\ World\!`

The ` outputs the string, while the \s are used to escape out of other characters.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

FALSE, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Objective-C, 30 bytes

main(){puts("Hello, World!");}
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Ada (GNAT), 54 bytes

procedure gnat.io.a is begin put("Hello, World!");end;

This trick is from anarchy golf: by defining your program in the GNAT.IO namespace, you have access to the put function, which is shorter than the usual way to print strings.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Curry, 26 bytes

main=putStr"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Clojure, 22 bytes

(print"Hello, World!")
\$\endgroup\$
0
1
\$\begingroup\$

K, 18 bytes

`0:"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ I think you should try for every letter in the alphabet ;) \$\endgroup\$
    – Beta Decay
    Aug 28, 2015 at 18:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ In some versions of K, you can just use "Hello, World!" as the entire program. I can't recall, but I believe it's either official K2 (NOT Kona, which doesn't print it; I think it's a K3 thing) or the official K5 (not sure about oK, though). \$\endgroup\$ Sep 2, 2015 at 2:28
1
\$\begingroup\$

Frink, 23 bytes

println["Hello, World"]

I only know of this through my searches for programming apps in the Play Store.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Betterave, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"

Betterave is unusual in that it has the whole "one character = one command" thing going on that many esolangs have, but it uses prefix notation, and the program is one big expression à la Scheme, as opposed to being tape- or stack-based. Here, $"Hello, World!" is just like a function call to print.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

TvmJIT, 29 bytes

(!call print "Hello, World!")
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

REBOL, 26 bytes

REBOL[]prin"Hello, World!"

REBOL scripts needs a valid header; the first seven bytes of this program are the simplest possible header. Then, prin prints a value without a trailing newline.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Dart, 31 bytes

main(){print("Hello, World!");}
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Gema, 21 bytes

\A=Hello, World\!@end

(Without input it would wait forever without terminating. Hence the need for explicitly @end.)

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Inform 6, 24 bytes

[Main;"Hello, World!";];

This must be compiled to Z-code, not Glulx.

Inform 6 has the neat feature that bare string literals are compiled into a print statement followed by a return true statement.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Muriel, 16 bytes

."Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

O, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"o

Try it online in the O Online IDE.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

small s.c.r.i.p.t., 15 bytes

Hello\, World\!

Using the OpenCOBOL interpreter, you have to pass this code as a command-line argument. Reading the from a file does weird things.

I'm not entirely sure why, but this works when reading from a file:

Hello
\, World\!
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

0(nop^), 19 Bytes

1$(Hello, World!")`

Time to start completing the numbers :)

1                   # push a non zero to top of stack
 $                  # duplicate top of stack
  (              )  # Push characters to pointer address
   Hello, World!    # Hello, World!
                "   # Pop string and save
                  ` # Output string if top of stack not 0 
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

LOLCODE, 35 bytes

HAI !
VISIBLE"Hello World!"
KTHXBYE
  • HAI ! initializes the code (just using HAI with a newline results in error)
  • VISIBLE"Hello World!" prints Hello, World!
  • KTHXBYE ends the program.
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ It seems we already have a shorter LOLCODE answer (feel free to leave yours as well though if you want). \$\endgroup\$ Aug 29, 2015 at 22:34
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Ah - ok. I'll leave mine here for the purpose of having HAI and KTHXBYE. \$\endgroup\$ Aug 29, 2015 at 22:35
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