438
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

781 Answers 781

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1
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Objective-C, 30 bytes

main(){puts("Hello, World!");}
| improve this answer | |
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1
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Ada (GNAT), 54 bytes

procedure gnat.io.a is begin put("Hello, World!");end;

This trick is from anarchy golf: by defining your program in the GNAT.IO namespace, you have access to the put function, which is shorter than the usual way to print strings.

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1
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Curry, 26 bytes

main=putStr"Hello, World!"
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1
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Clojure, 22 bytes

(print"Hello, World!")
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1
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K, 18 bytes

`0:"Hello, World!"
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  • \$\begingroup\$ I think you should try for every letter in the alphabet ;) \$\endgroup\$ – Beta Decay Aug 28 '15 at 18:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ In some versions of K, you can just use "Hello, World!" as the entire program. I can't recall, but I believe it's either official K2 (NOT Kona, which doesn't print it; I think it's a K3 thing) or the official K5 (not sure about oK, though). \$\endgroup\$ – kirbyfan64sos Sep 2 '15 at 2:28
1
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Frink, 23 bytes

println["Hello, World"]

I only know of this through my searches for programming apps in the Play Store.

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1
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Betterave, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"

Betterave is unusual in that it has the whole "one character = one command" thing going on that many esolangs have, but it uses prefix notation, and the program is one big expression à la Scheme, as opposed to being tape- or stack-based. Here, $"Hello, World!" is just like a function call to print.

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1
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TvmJIT, 29 bytes

(!call print "Hello, World!")
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1
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awk, 25 bytes

END{print"Hello, World!"}
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  • \$\begingroup\$ I know little of awk, but I think you can remove the END part. (It's June I know). \$\endgroup\$ – Erik the Outgolfer Jun 2 '16 at 19:30
  • \$\begingroup\$ Actually, if you use END, it requires some kind of input... the input can be empty but it seems to be needed on my version of AWK. You do need a label, though, otherwise nothing will happen. BEGIN works, but it adds 2 bytes. :( \$\endgroup\$ – Robert Benson Jul 19 '16 at 13:11
  • \$\begingroup\$ You're both right(ish). If you can invoke the one blank line of input rule you don't need the END, otherwise you must use BEGIN not END. \$\endgroup\$ – user3710044 Mar 19 '17 at 8:53
1
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REBOL, 26 bytes

REBOL[]prin"Hello, World!"

REBOL scripts needs a valid header; the first seven bytes of this program are the simplest possible header. Then, prin prints a value without a trailing newline.

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1
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Dart, 31 bytes

main(){print("Hello, World!");}
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1
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Gema, 21 bytes

\A=Hello, World\!@end

(Without input it would wait forever without terminating. Hence the need for explicitly @end.)

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1
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Inform 6, 24 bytes

[Main;"Hello, World!";];

This must be compiled to Z-code, not Glulx.

Inform 6 has the neat feature that bare string literals are compiled into a print statement followed by a return true statement.

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1
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Muriel, 16 bytes

."Hello, World!"
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1
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O, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"o

Try it online in the O Online IDE.

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1
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small s.c.r.i.p.t., 15 bytes

Hello\, World\!

Using the OpenCOBOL interpreter, you have to pass this code as a command-line argument. Reading the from a file does weird things.

I'm not entirely sure why, but this works when reading from a file:

Hello
\, World\!
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1
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0(nop^), 19 Bytes

1$(Hello, World!")`

Time to start completing the numbers :)

1                   # push a non zero to top of stack
 $                  # duplicate top of stack
  (              )  # Push characters to pointer address
   Hello, World!    # Hello, World!
                "   # Pop string and save
                  ` # Output string if top of stack not 0 
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1
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LOLCODE, 35 bytes

HAI !
VISIBLE"Hello World!"
KTHXBYE
  • HAI ! initializes the code (just using HAI with a newline results in error)
  • VISIBLE"Hello World!" prints Hello, World!
  • KTHXBYE ends the program.
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1
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~English revised, 21 bytes

Show "Hello, World!".

~English is not English, but looks like it.

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1
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REGXY, 16 bytes

//Hello, World!/

The implementation on the Esolang page generates Perl code, which will attempt to read from STDIN.

Input may (and has to) be empty for correct output, but STDIN has to be closed for the code to run.

Verification

$ perl -e "$(perl regxy.pl hello.xy)" <&-
Hello, World!
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1
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Snowman, 18 bytes

("Hello, World!"sP

Explanation

( sets variables a and f active. Then the string Hello, World is pushed to the first active variable, in this case, a. Then sP (String Print) prints the string from the first active variable with a string in it.

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1
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MoonScript, 20 bytes

print"Hello, World!"
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1
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Microscript, 17 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"ah
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1
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Perl 6, 18 bytes

say"Hello, World!"

I'm pretty sure this is as short as you can get, please let me know if there's any improvements that can be made.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ say needs a space after though \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Apr 14 '18 at 8:18
1
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Staq, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"

Output:

Executing D:\codegolf\Staq Hello World codegolf.txt

Hello, World!

Execution complete.
>
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1
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Loader, 22 bytes

printf "Hello, World!"
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1
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MagiStack, 22 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"|,?0=_@

Note that the reference implementation will print a leading linefeed, because it reads the filename interactively. This is not part of language specification.

How it works

"!dlroW ,olleH"         Push those character on the stack (last on top).
               |        Set marker.
                ,       Print a character from the stack and pop it.
                 ?      Push the stack's length.
                  0=    If the length is zero:
                    _     End the program.
                     @  Go back to the marker.
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1
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Emoticon, 26 bytes

Esolangs page for Emoticon.

Hello, World! :-Q S:-P :-P

One or both of the Ps could be Qs instead. Hello, and World! are just treated as strings and added to the "current list". :-Q prints Hello, and removes it from the list. S:-P prints a space, and :-P prints World!. I don't see how I could golf this any further, and I'm making it CW, because it's essentially copied from the examples section of the docs.

| improve this answer | |
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  • \$\begingroup\$ I had a play arounf with there online interpretor and this appears to work Hello, World! :Q S::P :P and a couple shorter \$\endgroup\$ – MickyT Sep 3 '15 at 0:08
  • \$\begingroup\$ @MickyT ah thanks, I'll have to test that tomorrow. The docs mentioned that there are 2-character emoticons, but they seemed to imply that the eyes were optional, not the noses. This makes much more sense though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Sep 3 '15 at 0:11
  • \$\begingroup\$ @MickyT I found this in the language spec: "These Emoticons output values from lists to Output Channels. Output channels are not lists, they are defined by the Interpreter and could be on screen areas, files, pipes and the like. Output Channels are implementation dependant. The Channel to which output should be printed is indicated by the nose of the Emoticon. By default screen print values should go to the channel -". Looking at the output of the interpreter, it seems like your code uses the : channel instead or - (which is STDOUT), so I think the code will have to stay as it is. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Sep 3 '15 at 12:05
  • \$\begingroup\$ That makes sense \$\endgroup\$ – MickyT Sep 3 '15 at 18:47
1
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Marbelous, 26 bytes

48656C6C6F2C20576F726C6421

Huh, I'm surprised no one has done Marbelous yet. There is not much to golf though: just list the 13 character codes in hexadecimal, to create one marble for each. As they fall off the grid, they're printed.

| improve this answer | |
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1
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X-D, 81 Bytes

I can't be sure that this would work as I can't find an interpreter, so if someone can, that would be good :) <- gratuitous smiley

8-~~~~~>8P8;$;~~>;P;------>;-P;%$;-->;P:~~->:P:~<:-->:P8~>8P;P;-->;P%P;~<;>;P8>8P

An explanation of what I think should be happening

#                        Pointers:   8    ;    :    %   
8-~~~~~>8P  # set 8 to 72, print 8  72
8;$         # copy 8 to ;                72
;~~>;P      # inc ; 29, print ;         101
;------>;-P # inc ; 7, print ;          108
;%$         # copy ; to %                         108
;-->;P      # inc ; 3, print ;          111
:~~->:P     # set : to 44, print :            44
:~<         # dec : 15                        29
:-->:P      # inc : 3, print :                32
8~>8P       # inc 8 15, print 8     87
;P          # print ;                   111
;-->;P      # inc ; 3, print ;          114
%P          # print %                             108
;~<         # dec ; 15                   99
;>;P        # inc ; 1, print ;          100
8>8P        # inc 8, print 8                  33
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
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