429
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 7
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

771 Answers 771

1
\$\begingroup\$

Matlab / Octave 21 20 bytes

21 bytes:

disp 'Hello, World!'

Try it on ideone (using Octave).

Note that removing disp is not acceptable, as the output would be ans = Hello, World!.

20 bytes:

!echo Hello, World!

This works for Matlab on Windows, Linux or Mac.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ disp"Hello, World!" is shorter. \$\endgroup\$ – kvill Aug 28 '15 at 15:44
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @kvill Thanks! But that doesn't work in Matlab. I'll leave that to you to write an Octave answer, and I'll remove the "Octave" language from mine \$\endgroup\$ – Luis Mendo Aug 28 '15 at 15:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ Hm, I thought they shared more syntax and I had no matlab available for testing. Good to know! \$\endgroup\$ – kvill Aug 28 '15 at 20:17
1
\$\begingroup\$

F#, 21 bytes

printf"Hello, World!"

Thanks for the comment @LegionMammal978!

\$\endgroup\$
  • 5
    \$\begingroup\$ This can be shortened to printf"Hello, World!" for a 21-byte solution. \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Aug 31 '15 at 11:07
1
\$\begingroup\$

Neoscript, 28 bytes

console:log("Hello, World!")
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

PyMin, 4 bytes

»Ħ

Body must be at least 30 characters; you entered 18.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

SQF, 25 bytes

systemChat"Hello, World!"

Not sure if this qualifies as STDOUT, as to write to actual STDOUT the ArmA engine would have to to the writing, but the systemChat log is the closest thing SQF has to a standard output stream.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

MiniStringFuck, 1326 bytes

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.+++++++..+++.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++++++++++++++++++.+++.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++.

Here, I present my new creation, MSF- (yes, MSF with a -, it's not Meta Server Fault here.) It's impractical for golfing, but it has 2 characters.

I am the winner on this language; you can't golf it more. Here are the two operators:

  • +: Add 1 to acc. If acc = 256, acc = 0.
  • .: Output acc as ASCII.

On the esolang page, I have, besides the interpreter (i.e. decoder), a generator (i.e. encoder) and an optimizer/golfer (i.e. compressor).

Unfortunately, this language doesn't support Unicode (yet).

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ If you support Unicode, wrapping would need 16777216 +, which is a bit long \$\endgroup\$ – TuxCrafting Sep 9 '16 at 18:02
1
\$\begingroup\$

Straw, 2 bytes

->

or

~>

Straw have 2 stacks. The first is initialized with a empty string, the second with Hello, World!.

~ toggle the active stack and - pop an item from the inactive stack and push it onthe active stack and > is the print command.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

MemeGolf, 570 bytes

Yet another strange esolang from me

jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 72 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 29 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 7 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 3 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Juice avocado for 67 minutes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Juice avocado for 12 minutes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 55 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 24 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Outgolf Dennis by 3 bytes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Juice avocado for 6 minutes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Juice avocado for 8 minutes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.Juice avocado for 67 minutes.
jQuery.44
jQuery.HE COMES

Outgolf Dennis by n bytes. add n to the accumulator, Juice avocado for n minutes. substract n from the accumulator, 44 print the value of the accumulator as a character and HE COMES terminate the program.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ Needs more JQuery \$\endgroup\$ – Business Cat Aug 15 '16 at 14:43
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @BusinessCat The correct orthography is jQuery \$\endgroup\$ – TuxCrafting Aug 15 '16 at 15:08
1
\$\begingroup\$

Dialpha bytecode, 44 bytes

Bytecode in Base64:

2voBAAEhAWQBbAFyAW8BVwEgASwBbwFsAWwBZQFIBQ8qAAAAHgseAAAAHwA=

Assembly code:

push8 0
"Hello, World!"
:loop
dup
jiz end
putc
jump loop
:end
flush
halt
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ How does the string get pushed to the stack? \$\endgroup\$ – Conor O'Brien Sep 15 '16 at 23:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ConorO'Brien "<string>" reverse the string and push each character on the stack \$\endgroup\$ – TuxCrafting Sep 16 '16 at 9:48
1
\$\begingroup\$

CILOS, 43 bytes

int main(){__silos_print("Hello, World!");}

CILOS is a subset of C99 compiling to SILOS.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Lolo, 396 bytes

Something I made today, :P

loloLo loLO lo lOlo LO lOlolo loloLo loLolo lo Lolo LO loLolo lOlolo lolOlo loLO LO lOlolo loLolo loLolo lololo loLo LO lOlolo loloLo lolO lo lolO LO lOlolo lolO lolO lo lOlo lo lOlolo loloLo LOLo lo loLO LO lOlolo loloLo loloLo lo loloLo LO Lolo LO lOlolo loloLo loloLo lo loloLo LO lolO LO lOlolo loloLo loloLo lo LOLo LO loLolo lOlolo lolOlo LOLo lO lOlolo lolO lolO lo lOlo lo Lolo LO lOlolol
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Awesome, 21 Bytes

print "Hello, World!"

"Awesome" is a sample language created in a e-book about language construction which can be found here: http://createyourproglang.com No, I didn't write this book but it's still worth a look.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Is there an interpreter for it? \$\endgroup\$ – TuxCrafting Oct 8 '16 at 10:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm not sure if there is a free one, sorry. But, if you buy the book you have a money-back garanty if you don't like it. \$\endgroup\$ – Mega Man Oct 8 '16 at 17:41
1
\$\begingroup\$

StackFuck, 18 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"{o}

The first cell is not used for the stack (It's the register), and is 0 at the start of the program, so no need to push a 0 at the start

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

FEU, 15 bytes

As sed, need empty input.

a/Hello, World!

Try it online!

Append Hello, World! to the input and the inout is implicitely printed.

Alternative (boring) version, taking no input:

__DATA__
Hello, World!

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

JSON, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"

Apparently golfing doesn't need to be Turing-complete. Someone mentioned a meta-post but I took their word for it. And hey, this is the closest to STDOUT there is in JSON.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Mathematica 21 Bytes

When run in the kernel console, output will be sent to the kernel console. Same for the notebook interface. Since the kernel can be launched from any command line, this will work.

Print@"Hello, World!"

You can also have Mathematica pass the command as a string to the OS like so:

Run["Echo Hello, World!"]

which will open up a command window for a very short amount of time but if you don't blink, you'll see the message.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ the one thing mathematica doesn't have a builtin for! \$\endgroup\$ – FlipTack Nov 19 '16 at 10:23
1
\$\begingroup\$

Z, 172 bytes

zz z zzz Z  Z
zz z z zZZ z  Z
zz z z zZZ zzZ  Z  Z
zz z z z z  Z
zz z zz Z  Z
zz z zzZ zzz  Z
zz z z z z  Z
zz z z z zZ  Z
zz z z zZZ zzZ  Z
zz z z zZZ zZZ  Z
zz z zz zz  Z
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yeah... unless you have an interpreter from before the challenge that works with 43 bytes, it doesn't count as 43. \$\endgroup\$ – Destructible Lemon Nov 27 '16 at 22:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ @DestructibleWatermelon Ok, I edited that out. \$\endgroup\$ – Esolanging Fruit Nov 28 '16 at 0:46
1
\$\begingroup\$

Kotlin, 22 bytes

print("Hello, World!")

There is an existing answer which includes a main function and a class definition, which aren't actually necessary when running Kotlin as a script (.kts).

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Kitanai, 20 bytes

print"Hello, World!"

Pretty easy to understand :)

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Zetaplex, 23 bytes

"Hello, World!"SrOsDrFe

Documentation for this language is here, basically this is a stack-based language where every command is 2 characters.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Gammaplex, 22 bytes

X"Hello World!"XXSXrRE

The links for the specs for this lang are dead, you can download the source code (C++) here.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Don't use XS. Just reverse it yourself. \$\endgroup\$ – jimmy23013 Jan 2 '17 at 22:06
1
\$\begingroup\$

Somme, 38 bytes

8s+vi:7+::J:^B4*25p9s6+v:J:6-:8-25pim,

Somme is kind of a complicated language. Some of the finer details are irrelevant, so I'll give you what you need to know.

  1. Somme is stack-based.
  2. The numbers 0-9 push that number, along with A-F pushing 10-15.
  3. The above are treated as 0-arity functions.
  4. When a 0-arity function is invoked, the default pop for the stack is set to the result. So, 8s+ first pushes 8, squares 8, then adds 8 to it. This is 72, orH.
  5. m, prints the stack as characters.

I'll add some more explanation later.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

C (works with gcc/linux/x86_64), 129 bytes

Not my original idea, just changed a couple of bytes and golfed a little:

const main[]={-443987883,440,113408,-1922629632,4149,965120,84869120,15544,266023168,1818576901,539783020,1819438935,-1878384284};
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Seg fault on my system. \$\endgroup\$ – MD XF Mar 6 '17 at 22:56
  • \$\begingroup\$ Works on Ubuntiu 16.04.04 using gcc 5.4.0 \$\endgroup\$ – G B Mar 7 '17 at 7:13
1
\$\begingroup\$

QBIC, 3 bytes

?_H

QBIC has a built-in specifically for this purpose, it was kind of a test to see how this sort of function-calls would look in QBIC source and how the QBasic interpreter would need to handle this. For those who frown upon built-ins:

?@Hello, World!

15 bytes, still not bad. QBIC needs string literals to be closed by a ` (backtick), and auto-closes literals at End-Of-File.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Minkolang v.0.9, 18 bytes

"Hello, World!"$O.

Try it online! The v.0.1 answer seems to no longer, so it makes sense to post an answer in the most recent version.

"Hello, World!"$O.
"Hello, World!"     Push these chars to the stack
               $O   output all these characters
                 .  terminate the program
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

8th, 16 17 bytes

"Hello, World!" .

Push the string on TOS. Then print the item on stack with .

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ With version 17.01 of 8th a bug has been fixed. Therefore a space before . is strictly required. \$\endgroup\$ – Chaos Manor Feb 6 '17 at 19:35
1
\$\begingroup\$

SQLite, 22 bytes

select"Hello, World!";

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Changeling, 90 bytes

"IpQ:AQ..
""2(-znK]
"" "Tr4r[
"")$dNcA.
"" #!&...
.........
.........
.........
.........

Try it online!

Background

Changeling is a particularly cumbersome encoding of ShapeScript, designed to make it more difficult to program in and forcing certain geometric shape upon the source code. Both were designed for Create a programming language that only appears to be unusable. I got a little nostalgic when TIO surpassed 200 languages, so since ShapeScript was the very first language on TIO, I decided to add Changeling as the 201st.

All Changeling programs have to form a square of printable ASCII characters. Each line of that square independently creates a bit of ShapeScript code, and the concatenation of these code snippets are evaluated as a ShapeScript program.

Each line begins with an accumulator of 0. For each character c of the line (including the trailing linefeed), the code point of c is XORed with the accumulator divided by 2, and the Unicode character that corresponds to the resulting code point is appended to the source code. Then, the difference between the code point of c and the integer 32 is added to the accumulator, and the next character of the line (if any) is processed.

The resulting program must contain only valid ShapeScript statements or it will not run at all. Exceptions are caught and error messages are replaced with cryptic complaints.

How it works (WIP)

The standard Hello World program in ShapeScript is simply

"Hello, World!"

However, no Changeling program can encode this exact program.

Since the accumulator is initially 0 on each line, modeling the characters at the beginning of each line into something useful is comparatively easy. The remainder of the line can be enclosed in a string (which is later popped) to avoid syntax errors in the resulting ShapeScript code.

"Hell""
"#0#"o,""
"#" Wor""
"#+"ld""
"#"!""

can be generated by

"IpQ:AQ
""2(-znK]
"" "Tr4r[
"")$dNcA
"" #!&

which, by itself, is not a valid Changeling program yet, as its source code is not a square. That's easily fixed by adding characters though, but some care has to be taken not to end the strings started by each trailing " in the ShapeScript program.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

JSFuck, 22948 bytes

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\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! All answers on code-golf questions such as this one must include their length in their header; I've edited this in for you. \$\endgroup\$ – ETHproductions Feb 25 '17 at 20:44
1
\$\begingroup\$

Crayon, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"q

Try it online!

Crayon is a stack-based golfing language designed to be good at ASCII-art challenges. Instead of the traditional one-line-at-a-time output format, Crayon writes to a 2D "canvas" of characters, which is sent to STDOUT at the end of the program. The q command writes the top item directly onto the canvas.

\$\endgroup\$

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