# "Hello, World!"

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

## The Rules

• Each submission must be a full program.
• The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
• The program must not write anything to STDERR.
• If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

• Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
• This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
• If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

## The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes


where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes


If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes


You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes


/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(a) {
var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
});
if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
comment_page = 1;
}
});
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(c) {
if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
});
else process();
}
});
}

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
var valid = [];

var body = a.body;
if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
});

var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
if (match)
valid.push({
user: getAuthorName(a),
size: +match[2],
language: match[1],
});
else console.log(body);
});

valid.sort(function (a, b) {
var aB = a.size,
bB = b.size;
return aB - bB
});

var languages = {};
var place = 1;
var lastSize = null;
var lastPlace = 1;
valid.forEach(function (a) {
if (a.size != lastSize)
lastPlace = place;
lastSize = a.size;
++place;

.replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)

var lang = a.language;
lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();

languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
});

var langs = [];
for (var lang in languages)
if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
langs.push(languages[lang]);

langs.sort(function (a, b) {
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
return 0;
});

for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
{
var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
var lang = langs[i];
language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
.replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
language = jQuery(language);
jQuery("#languages").append(language);
}

}
body {
text-align: left !important;
display: block !important;
}

width: 290px;
float: left;
}

#language-list {
width: 500px;
float: left;
}

font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
<h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
<table class="language-list">
<tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
<tbody id="languages">

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
</tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
<tbody id="language-template">
</tbody>
</table>

• @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
• If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
• @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
• @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
• @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. May 20 '18 at 10:20

# Vyxal, 2 bytes

kH


Pushes the built-in string Hello, World!, with implicit output.

Try it Online!

# REXX, 18 bytes

say"Hello, World!"


Rexx is widely used as a scripting and macro language, and is often used for processing data and text and generating reports. Rexx is the primary scripting language in some operating systems, e.g. OS/2, MVS, VM, AmigaOS, and is also used as an internal macro language in some other software, such as KEDIT, THE and the ZOC terminal emulator.

• Yeah, it's used on zOS Feb 24 '16 at 19:36
• You can remove the space between the say command and the string, meaning say"Hello, World!" works. Apr 20 at 22:29

# 1L_a, 3549 2532 bytes

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***   **     *  *  *   **   *  *    *     *  *    *     **  *   **  *  **  ** *******    *  *    *  *****  ** * *****    **  *    *     ******  ***  *   *****  *     *  *   ** * *****    *  *    *  **  **   *    *       *  *    *      *****    ***      **    *  *  *  *********  ***  *   ****   **  *  ***  *  *     *  *   *    *  *********  *      *****     *      *  *** ****    ***       *****  **     *  *  *    *  ***
**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************


Try it online! (heh, line wrapping makes it look wierd)

Automatically generated by this program, with some golfing (manual + golf.rb).

It is very hard to program in 1L_a, so I use generator. Generator creates cells, each cell prints one bit. It iterates through all possible cells with height 6 and no more than 5 inner asterisks to find a cell that prints the needed bit. Generator fails if height is less than 6 or max asterisk count is less than 5.

This is an ungolfed version with cells visible (13*8 = 104 cells):

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*         * * *  * * *        * * *    * ** * *  * **   * *  ** *  * *   ** *   * *          * *  * **         * * *   * **         * *  * *  * * *  * **   * **       * **         * *  * *     * ** * **   * *   * *  * *          * *        * *   * **    * *        ** **         * *  * *  * * *  * **   * * *      *** *   ** *  * *     * ** * *  * **   * *         * *           * *        *       * ***   * **       * *          * *        * *  * **         * * *        * **    * *        ** *   ** *   * **       ** *         * *         * *   *** * * * *    * ** * *        * *           * *         * *         * *     * ** * *  * **   * **
*** *    * *         ** *    * **  ** *       * *    * **       * **         * **  * *        ** *    * ***        ** *    * *       ** *         * *    * *   * *  * *    * *       ** *          * *    * ** ** *        ** **  * ** ** *      * * *          ** *   * *    * *       ** *         * *    * *    * *   * **        * **    * *       * *    * **   * *       * ** *   * **   * *    * ** * *     * *   * *        ** **  * ** ** *      ** *    * ***         * ** * *          ** *   * **         * *   * *         ** *  * **   * *      *        ** **   * *        * *       * ** *   * **   * *        ** *  * ** * ** *       * *    * *   *
* **   * **       *  * *  ** *   ** *   ** *  * *      *  * *   * *  * *    * **  * *   * ***  * *      ** * * *  ** *  ** ** *** ***** *      *  * *      *  * ***** *  * ** * * ***** *      **  * *      *       ** **** **  ** **  * *   * **** **  * *     * *  ** *   * ** * * ***** *      *  * *      *  * **  ** *   * *    * *         ** *  * *      *        ** **** *    ** **        ** *    * *  * *  *  * ***** **** **  ** **  * *   * **** *      ** * * *  ** **  * *  * *     * *  ** *   * *    * **  * ***** *** * **  ** *        ** **** *     * *         ** *  * *** * **** *    ** **         * **** **  ** *       *  * *  * *      *  * *****
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# Flurry-bnn, 710 bytes

(){}[(){}[(){}[(){}[(){}[(){}[(){}[(){}(<[{<({}){}>}{<({})({}){}>}][{<({})({}){}>}{<({}){}>}]>)((((<><<>()>[{<({}){}>}<{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>])[<><<>()>]{<({})({})({})({})({})({}){}>}))[<><<>()>]{<({})({}){}>})](<{<({})({})({}){}>}[<><<>()><{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>]>)]({<({})({})({})({}){}>}{<({}){}>})](<{<({})({}){}>}[<><<>()><{<({})({})({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({})({})({}){}>}>]>)](([{<({}){}>}<{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>][<><<>()>][<><<>()>[<{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>]])[<><<>()>]{<({})({}){}>})]([{<({}){}>}<{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>][<><<>()>][{<({})({}){}>}{<({}){}>}])]({<({}){}>}<{<({}){}>}{<({})({})({})({}){}>}>)](<><<>()>[{<({})({})({})({}){}>}{<({}){}>}])


Try it on the online Flurry interpreter!

# Snap!, 34 bytes

when gf clicked
say[Hello, World!]


Easiest program I've written in my life

• Does snap allow unmatched brackets - say[Hello, world!? May 5 at 9:35

# AEWNN, 75 bytes

[8+]cpar2[5+]cpa[7+]cpacpa+++cpa [8+]cpar2[15+]cpa+++cpar2[12+]cpar2++++cpa


All of these answers are pretty boring (one is a built-in and the string compression algorithm isn't even my own); consider upvoting some cool answers in tarpits / esolangs rather than this one. I'm just putting it here to have yuno officially be a language on CGCC, and because Hello, World! is a good entry point for any language.

# yuno, 1 byte

ᴋ


Try it online!

By default, if the k-literal digraph finds no character after it, it just uses H, because I haven't thought of a good behavior for it otherwise so I may as well save bytes on Hello World.

# yuno, 2 bytes

ᴋH


Try it online! Uses the built-in string nilad digraph (inspired by Vyxal).

# yuno, 8 bytes

“3ԸaϨ;ψ»


Try it online! Uses a compressed string with the exact same compression algorithm that Jelly uses.

# yuno, 15 bytes

“Hello, World!”


Try it online! A default string. As caird coinheringaahing points out, the trailing ” can be removed if it occurs at the end of the program.

• You can omit the trailing ” from the last one Jun 21 at 9:56
• @cairdcoinheringaahing I could; just felt like leaving it as the default no-optimization method. I'll leave a note though. Jun 21 at 9:58
• Re: 'publicizing it maybe it'll force me to actually write it' (from 'yuno-abandoned' answer): do you have any plans to write-up any kind of list of commands or minimal 'how-to'? Jun 22 at 9:35

# 51AC8, 2 bytes

Kh


Try it Online!

Finally an online interpreter. A little quirk you have to press Run twice.

# Flipbit, 148134 129 bytes

^>>>^>>>.^<<^<^<<^>>>>>.^<<<^>>>..^<^>.[<]<?>^>^>>.<<^<^>>>.<<<^>>^>^>^.<<<^<^<^>>>>>.[<]?^>>>^>.<<<<?>^>^>>.<<<^>>>.<<<<<?>>>>^.


Try it online!

-14 bytes thanks to Aaron Miller

-5 bytes thanks to Bubbler

## How it works

Flipbit uses an infinite tape, consisting of either a 1 or a 0 per cell. The way it outputs is getting all previous elements in the tape, converting that from binary, then indexing into Unicode.

• 134 bytes Jul 24 at 4:06
• 129 using Thanos-oriented programming. Jul 26 at 8:21

# Minim, 44 43 42 Bytes

New solution uses the Carriage Return escape character '\r', saving 1 more byte:

[]="\r!dlroW ,olleH".$<[[0]--]._^![0].C=0.  Thanks to @stasoid for the incidental? realization! With whitespace and comments: [] = "\r!dlroW ,olleH". ; Insert the value 13, and "Hello, World!" backwards, \ into memory starting from index 0$< [[0]--].             ; Prints the value at the index stored at index 0 as unicode, \
and decrements index 0
_^ ![0].                ; Skip the next statement if index 0 is 0
C = 0.                  ; Sets the program counter to 0, which advances to 1 afterwards


Previous solutions prepended the string with 13...

[]=13&"!dlroW ,olleH".$<[[0]--]._^![0].C=0.  ... or used ASCII escape character 0xD (CR) in the string: []="\x0D!dlroW ,olleH".$<[[0]--]._^![0].C=0.


GitHub Repository

• newline is optional Aug 24 at 13:29
• @stasoid You are correct! That is actually a typo held over from the original solution, where I put the string counter IN the string, but it ended up being shorter to prepend the counter with the '&' operator. Thanks for the catch! That actually means I can make this one byte shorter still! Aug 27 at 1:43

# Vim, 14 bytes

iHello, World!


Try it online!

• I think this is the shortest it can get Oct 9 at 4:17

# C++, 59 bytes

#include <iostream>
int main(){std::cout<<"Hello, World!";}

• Isn't the newline optional? Aug 28 '15 at 14:14
• @UndefinedFunction try it. It will not work without a new line Aug 28 '15 at 17:36
• Isn't printf smaller? #include <cstdio>? Aug 28 '15 at 17:37
• @georgeunix My comment referred to a previous version, in which it read cout<<"Hello, World!\n". The \n was removed, since a newline was not required after the output. Aug 28 '15 at 17:39
• Oh OK, sorry for that @UndefinedFunction Aug 28 '15 at 17:39

# Stackstack, 20 Bytes

This is a stack-based language not focused on golfing! Looks similar to Forth, and was made two years ago.

"Hello, World!"print


## STATA, 17 bytes

di"Hello, World!"


# Algoid, 28 bytes

text.output("Hello, World!")


Now that's just boring in such a fun language... Here's a slightly longer version, let's get some colours going for 104 bytes:

algo.hide()
algo.setColor(algo.color.GREEN)
algo.setBgColor(algo.color.DARK_RED)
algo.text("Hello, World!")


See the output here

Okay I've finished for the day now :)

# Enema, 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[DZBO]


### How it works

"!dlroW ,olleH" Push those characters (including a null byte) on the stack.
[               Infinite loop:
D               Duplicate the topmost element on the stack.
Z               If it is non-zero, skip the next instruction.
B             Break out of the loop.
O             Output as a character.
]


# dc, 16 bytes

[Hello, World!]p


I can't think of any way to get this one shorter.

# Element, 17 bytes

Hello\,\ World\!


The  outputs the string, while the \s are used to escape out of other characters.

# FALSE, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"


# Objective-C, 30 bytes

main(){puts("Hello, World!");}


# Ada (GNAT), 54 bytes

procedure gnat.io.a is begin put("Hello, World!");end;


This trick is from anarchy golf: by defining your program in the GNAT.IO namespace, you have access to the put function, which is shorter than the usual way to print strings.

# Curry, 26 bytes

main=putStr"Hello, World!"


# Clojure, 22 bytes

(print"Hello, World!")


# K, 18 bytes

0:"Hello, World!"

• I think you should try for every letter in the alphabet ;) Aug 28 '15 at 18:22
• In some versions of K, you can just use "Hello, World!" as the entire program. I can't recall, but I believe it's either official K2 (NOT Kona, which doesn't print it; I think it's a K3 thing) or the official K5 (not sure about oK, though). Sep 2 '15 at 2:28

# Frink, 23 bytes

println["Hello, World"]


I only know of this through my searches for programming apps in the Play Store.

# Betterave, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"  Betterave is unusual in that it has the whole "one character = one command" thing going on that many esolangs have, but it uses prefix notation, and the program is one big expression à la Scheme, as opposed to being tape- or stack-based. Here, $"Hello, World!" is just like a function call to print.

# TvmJIT, 29 bytes

(!call print "Hello, World!")


# REBOL, 26 bytes

REBOL[]prin"Hello, World!"


REBOL scripts needs a valid header; the first seven bytes of this program are the simplest possible header. Then, prin prints a value without a trailing newline.

# Dart, 31 bytes

main(){print("Hello, World!");}


# Gema, 21 bytes

\A=Hello, World\!@end


(Without input it would wait forever without terminating. Hence the need for explicitly @end`.)