475
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
21
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

858 Answers 858

1
\$\begingroup\$

NOTE, 23 bytes

.print/"Hello, World!"\
\$\endgroup\$
0
1
\$\begingroup\$

<>^v, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!";

Pushes the string "Hello, World!" to the stack and prints it.

run online

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Lispy, 25 bytes

(println "Hello, World!")

This is an implementation of a Lisp invented by Daniel Holden in his book.

\$\endgroup\$
6
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! I think you might want to check that byte count. \$\endgroup\$ – EasyasPi May 22 at 4:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ I accidentally put the lispy binary size instead of the code file. Thanks for the correction :p \$\endgroup\$ – sysgrammer May 22 at 5:48
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ How is this encoded? This doesn't look like 4 bytes to me - is this a tokenized language? \$\endgroup\$ – hyper-neutrino May 22 at 5:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes it is tokenized. You can read the source on github and its documentation is also available \$\endgroup\$ – sysgrammer May 22 at 5:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ The documentation doesn't seem to mention any tokenized encoding, and the .bsf files in the repository appear to be encoded unexceptionally. Could you provide a hexdump of your solution, and instructions to run it? (If this is a misunderstanding about what a tokenized encoding means, feel free to correct your byte count to 25.) \$\endgroup\$ – Unrelated String Jun 13 at 0:53
1
\$\begingroup\$

æae, 484 chars

€ââââäââââââââæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââäâââââââââââââââââæėââââââââââåæėââââäâââââââââââââââââââââââæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ

I've added newlines to clarify which is which:

€                                      < € is required here
ââââäââââââââæ                         < H
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ       < e
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ              < l
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ              < l
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ                 < o
ėâââäâââââââââââââââââæ                < ,
ėââââââââââåæ                          < [space]
ėââââäâââââââââââââââââââââââæ         < W
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ                 < o
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęæ                    < r
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ              < l
ėâââââäęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęęæ      < d

æae is a language that I made and am implementing as practice for CBL. Github: https://github.com/SMARNAV/aeae/

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

RAMDISP, 18 bytes.

[;[Hello, World!]]

explanation:

[; - print the following values, stringified, and joined.
  [Hello, World!] - an array containing ['H', 'e', 'l', ...]
]
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Regenerate, 14 bytes

Hello, World\!

Try it here!

Regenerate is my new regex-match-generation language. The hello world program is pretty simple: just the literal string as a regex, with the ! escaped because it's a metacharacter.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

S3C, 13 bytes

Hello, World! returns Hello, World! This is a fairly new esolang, but it works for golfing.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ The output requires Hello, World! exactly (note the capitalized H). \$\endgroup\$ – hyper-neutrino Jul 9 at 3:43
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Also, byte count includes whitespace. \$\endgroup\$ – Underslash Jul 9 at 3:48
0
\$\begingroup\$

rs, 14 bytes

/Hello, World!

Replaces the empty string with "Hello, World!"

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Axo, 29 bytes

"!dlroW, o%
\%#[<"Hell<
 >( ^

Please let me know if this can be golfed further.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Another 29 byte solution: "!dlroW ,olleH"(((((((((((((\ \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Feb 6 '19 at 3:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ You may want to consider putting in a TIO link to make it more accessible for others to test it \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Apr 21 '19 at 22:50
0
\$\begingroup\$

WARP, 16 bytes

)"Hello, World!"

) is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

ACIDIC, 16 bytes

Hello, World!
+*

Prints the entire storage stack, which is filled with Hello, World!.

\$\endgroup\$
0
0
\$\begingroup\$

[], 20 bytes

(({<[Hello, World!})

Don't ask me how this works.

\$\endgroup\$
3
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ How does this work? \$\endgroup\$ – NieDzejkob Apr 29 '17 at 17:41
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @NieDzejkob Good question! \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Apr 29 '17 at 17:43
  • \$\begingroup\$ Here is some documentation on how this works. It works because (({<x) prints the value of x. What remains is to convert "Hello, World!" into something printable by putting it in the declareDataX function [x} like [Hello, World!}. Therefore the program is (({<[Hello, World!}). At least I think that is how it works. \$\endgroup\$ – NK1406 Dec 15 '18 at 20:10
0
\$\begingroup\$

Ans, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"

$ is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

J--, 28 bytes

main{echo("Hello, World!");}

main is replaced with public static void main(String[]a), echo is replaced with System.out.println, and the entire program is put in a class.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

A0A0, 57 bytes

P72P87
P101P111
P108P114
P108P108
P111P100
P44P33
P32
G-6

2 commands per line was the densest packing that I could find.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ I get Hl,Wrdeo ol! as the output from this... \$\endgroup\$ – Sp3000 Sep 28 '15 at 12:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Sp3000 Should be fixed \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Sep 28 '15 at 20:57
0
\$\begingroup\$

STXTRM, 15 bytes

[Hello, World!]

[...] is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Argh!, 27 bytes

ppppppppppppp
Hello, World!

Each p prints the character below it.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

AutoIt, 29 bytes

ConsoleWrite("Hello, World!")

Needs to be compiled as a console program.

\$\endgroup\$
1
  • \$\begingroup\$ MsgBox(0,"","Hello, World!") is one shorter :) \$\endgroup\$ – seadoggie01 May 8 '19 at 20:37
0
\$\begingroup\$

Foobar and Foobaz and Barbaz, oh my!, 314 bytes

72 and 72 and 0, oh my.
37 and 37 and 64, oh my.
72 and 72 and 36, oh my.
. and 64 and 44, oh my.
67 and 67 and 44, oh my.
. and 44 and 0, oh my.
. and 32 and 0, oh my.
87 and 87 and 0, oh my.
40 and 40 and 71, oh my.
16 and 16 and 98, oh my.
12 and 12 and 96, oh my.
. and 64 and 36, oh my.
1 and 1 and 32, oh my.

I believe that this is an optimal solution, with each line outputting a character.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Tarflex, 18 bytes

outs Hello, World!

outs is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

SSBPL, 33 bytes

0'!'d'l'r'o'W' ','o'l$'e'H[$][.]#

This pushes the ASCII for "Hello, World!" followed by a 0 onto the stack, then prints the top value while it isn't zero.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Super Stack!, 66 bytes

0 33 100 108 114 111 87 32 44 111 108 108 101 72 if outputascii fi

Pushes the letters followed by a zero onto the stack, and prints them while they aren't zero.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Swap, 13 bytes

Hello, World!

Similar to ///, but swaps the terms instead of replacing them.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

ZeptoBasic, 21 bytes

print "Hello, World!"

print is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

EEL, 93 bytes

(Also known as Extensible Esoteric Language)

def(z|-1;x;z)
def(d|c;z)
72
d
101
d
108
c
d
111
d
44
d
32
d
87
d
111
d
114
d
108
d
100
d
33
d

I'm sure this could be golfed quite a lot, but this is something I whipped up pretty quick. All it does is define some helpful functions and use them to display "Hello, World!"

Also, this DOES print "Hello, World!" with the characters separated by newlines, but I can't do anything about that, it's impossible in EEL.

\$\endgroup\$
1
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ its obviously not that extensible if you can't do the challenge... \$\endgroup\$ – Destructible Lemon Jul 16 '17 at 14:26
0
\$\begingroup\$

~English, 29 bytes

Display "Hello, World!".Stop.
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Wat, 47 + 1 = 48 bytes

0«!dlroW ,olleH»>ó#ÐÑÅv
                ^     <

I post a explanation tomorrow Here is the explanation:

First line:

0«!dlroW ,olleH»>ó#ÐÑÅv

0«!dlroW ,olleH»        Push a reversed null terminated string
                >       Go forward
                 ó      Duplicate the top of stack
                  #     Skip the next instruction
                   Ð    Kill all "execution engines" (end the program)
                    Ñ   If the top of the stack is 0, go backward (execute Ð and end the program), otherwise go forward
                     Å  Print the character on the top of the stack
                      v Go downward
Second line:

                ^     <

Simply loop from the 'v' to the '>'
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Fith, 17 bytes

"Hello, World!" .

. is the print word.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Doesn't that thing have any documentation??? \$\endgroup\$ – Erik the Outgolfer Jun 17 '16 at 12:32
  • \$\begingroup\$ @EʀɪᴋᴛʜᴇGᴏʟғᴇʀ Documentation is in progress. Don't let the one-byte instruction fool you - this lang is terrible for golfing. \$\endgroup\$ – jqblz Jun 17 '16 at 14:23
0
\$\begingroup\$

0815, 92 80 bytes

<:48:~$<:65:~$<:6C:~$$><:6F:~$>@<:2C:~$<:20:~$<:57:~${~$<:72:~${~$<:64:~$<:21:~$
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Arithmescript, 42 bytes

Try it here!

Golfed:

var input = "";add("Hello, World!");out();

Ungolfed:

var input = "";
add("Hello, World!");
out();

This defines the input as nothing, adds the string Hello, World!, and then alerts it (you can't log to console as of now)

Technically this is 379 bytes, as v1.0 had a bug where not embedding the programming language interpreter led to not being about to change the input variable.

Requires Arithmescript v1.0 or higher


Arithmescript, 27 bytes

Try it here!

Golfed:

add("Hello, World!");out();

Ungolfed:

add("Hello, World!");
out();

v1.1 of Arithmescript automatically defines the input variable, so we use less bytes!

Requires Arithmescript v1.1 or higher


Arithmescript, 11 bytes

Try it here!

Golfed:

hw();out();

Ungolfed:

hw();
out();

Arithmescript has a function that works the same as add("Hello, World!") but is shorter and takes no parameters.

Requires Arithmescript v1.1 or higher


If you're wondering, Arithmescript is a programming language written in JavaScript for golfing. Technically, it's not a programming language, but it is. You can view the sources of v1.0 and v1.1.

\$\endgroup\$

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