468
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
21
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

843 Answers 843

1
\$\begingroup\$

Rutger, 23 bytes

Print["Hello, World!"];

Try it online!

An old language of mine, and fairly basic, but included for comprehension.

\$\endgroup\$
3
  • \$\begingroup\$ Wiki writing time? \$\endgroup\$ – Razetime Sep 22 '20 at 15:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Razetime If I can find time among all the other language wikis I should be writing :P \$\endgroup\$ – caird coinheringaahing Sep 22 '20 at 15:19
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'll figure it out once I'm done with the Add++ wiki, maybe. \$\endgroup\$ – Razetime Sep 22 '20 at 15:29
1
\$\begingroup\$

Scala 3, 34 bytes

@main
def m=print("Hello, World!")

Thought Dotty deserved its own answer.

Try it in Scastie

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1
\$\begingroup\$

kavod, 47 bytes

72#101#108#108#111#44#32#87#111#114#108#100#33#

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

BRASCA, 14 bytes

Another simple Hello, World program.

`Hello, World!

Explanation

`                  - Push everything from here to the next backtick (or EOF) to the stack
 Hello, World!     - The text, duh :^)
<implicit output>  - Output the contents of the stack reversed

Language Link

Github Repo

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Rust, 36 bytes

Extremely basic, and no explanation needed, but here:

fn main(){println!("Hello, World!")}

If, for some reason, anyone would like to try it, you can here

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ Actually your code is 35 bytes long. But because the output must be exactly as required (including uppercase “W” and trailing “!”), the correct code's length will be 36. \$\endgroup\$ – manatwork Jan 28 at 12:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ Thanks! I changed the byte number, and corrected the hello world \$\endgroup\$ – HaroldTheSenpai Jan 28 at 14:04
1
\$\begingroup\$

Duocentehexaquinquagesimal, 28 bytes

1Ƶ¸ñ=öu¯2–sε`;ÈùˆζT¿āΔIÈ3Wÿ»

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ +1 just for the name. \$\endgroup\$ – A username Apr 17 at 1:17
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ausername Lol, yeah I picked it because (at least I thought) it was encoded in Base 256. Turns out, since 05AB1E needs to reserve the bullet point for starting and ending Base-256 numbers, it actually uses base 255, but I didn't feel like updating all my answers :P \$\endgroup\$ – Makonede Apr 17 at 2:10
1
\$\begingroup\$

Deadfish~, 1 byte

w

Try it online!

Kind of cheating really... but then I think there are some zero byte answers!

\$\endgroup\$
1
  • \$\begingroup\$ This was already posted here last year, unfortunately :( we do technically allow duplicate answers, so it is up to you if you keep or remove it \$\endgroup\$ – hyper-neutrino Apr 20 at 19:58
1
\$\begingroup\$

Vyxal, 2 bytes

kH

Pushes the built-in string Hello, World!, with implicit output.

Try it Online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

CASL II, 55 43 bytes.

CASL II is an assembly language for COMET II, the fictional architecture. It is designed for Japan Information-Technology Engineers Examination.

I've found a way to specify a literal instead of an address:

A START
 OUT ='Hello, World!',=13
 RET
 END

Previous version

55 bytes

Z START
 OUT A,B
 RET
A DC 'Hello, World!'
B DC 13
 END

Links (they are in Japanese)

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

():;+-#?!, 26 bytes

:H:e:l:l:o:,: :w:o:r:l:d:!

Try it online! (Node.js interpreter)

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Interesting! Is this your language? \$\endgroup\$ – ophact May 14 at 7:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ophact no, I found it on the esolangs.org, you can click the link to know more \$\endgroup\$ – Wasif May 14 at 7:53
1
\$\begingroup\$

Subleq (8-bit), 25 bytes

12 -1 13
1 0 6
3 2 -1
11 11 0 
72 101 108 108 111 44 32 
87 111 114 108 100 33

Subleq Emulator

This is shorter than the other "Hello, World" samples I have seen online.

Explanation

 0: 12 -1 13                  'Output 12:; 2: is used as a countdown  
 3: 1 0 6                     '0: = 0: + 1; move to the next character
 6: 3 2 -1                    '2: = 2: - 1, if 2: <= 0 then exit 
 9: 11 11 0                   '11: = 0, goto 0
12: 72 101 108 108 111 44 32  '12: "Hello, " 
19: 87 111 114 108 100 33     '19: "World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Knight, 16 bytes

O"Hello, World!"

Knight is a language made up by some people on my Discord back in April 2021, which is designed to be portable to various programming languages.

Explanation

O is shorthand for OUTPUT, which prints the first argument.

I think you can figure out the rest.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Wiselang, 20 bytes

(an esoteric language of mine and BLA4KM4MBA)

eww "Hello, World!";
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Lispy, 4 bytes

(println "Hello, World!")

This is an implementation of a Lisp invented by Daniel Holden in his book.

\$\endgroup\$
4
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! I think you might want to check that byte count. \$\endgroup\$ – EasyasPi May 22 at 4:22
  • \$\begingroup\$ I accidentally put the lispy binary size instead of the code file. Thanks for the correction :p \$\endgroup\$ – sysgrammer May 22 at 5:48
  • \$\begingroup\$ How is this encoded? This doesn't look like 4 bytes to me - is this a tokenized language? \$\endgroup\$ – hyper-neutrino May 22 at 5:49
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes it is tokenized. You can read the source on github and its documentation is also available \$\endgroup\$ – sysgrammer May 22 at 5:58
1
\$\begingroup\$

AEWNN, 75 bytes

[8+]cpar2[5+]cpa[7+]cpacpa+++cpa [8+]cpar2[15+]cpa+++cpar2[12+]cpar2++++cpa
New contributor
name is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering. Check out our Code of Conduct.
\$\endgroup\$
1
1
\$\begingroup\$

Lolwho.Cares, 35 bytes

>*2+00210v
^<0210<2`<
Hello, World!

Explanation:

The code is essentially a for loop; A counter increments, a character is then read from code. The program exits if this is 0 (end of line), or continues printing.

New contributor
Robot is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering. Check out our Code of Conduct.
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Squire, 25 bytes

proclaim("Hello, World!")

Whilst I hath already posteth a "FizzBuzz" program, being the absolute jester I am, I forgoteth to proclaim "Hello, World!" first.

Being themed upon ye olde medieval times, one does not simply "print" in Squire. One must proclaim.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

NOTE, 23 bytes

.print/"Hello, World!"\
New contributor
name is a new contributor to this site. Take care in asking for clarification, commenting, and answering. Check out our Code of Conduct.
\$\endgroup\$
0
0
\$\begingroup\$

rs, 14 bytes

/Hello, World!

Replaces the empty string with "Hello, World!"

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Axo, 29 bytes

"!dlroW, o%
\%#[<"Hell<
 >( ^

Please let me know if this can be golfed further.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Another 29 byte solution: "!dlroW ,olleH"(((((((((((((\ \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Feb 6 '19 at 3:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ You may want to consider putting in a TIO link to make it more accessible for others to test it \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Apr 21 '19 at 22:50
0
\$\begingroup\$

WARP, 16 bytes

)"Hello, World!"

) is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

ACIDIC, 16 bytes

Hello, World!
+*

Prints the entire storage stack, which is filled with Hello, World!.

\$\endgroup\$
0
0
\$\begingroup\$

[], 20 bytes

(({<[Hello, World!})

Don't ask me how this works.

\$\endgroup\$
3
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ How does this work? \$\endgroup\$ – NieDzejkob Apr 29 '17 at 17:41
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @NieDzejkob Good question! \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Apr 29 '17 at 17:43
  • \$\begingroup\$ Here is some documentation on how this works. It works because (({<x) prints the value of x. What remains is to convert "Hello, World!" into something printable by putting it in the declareDataX function [x} like [Hello, World!}. Therefore the program is (({<[Hello, World!}). At least I think that is how it works. \$\endgroup\$ – NK1406 Dec 15 '18 at 20:10
0
\$\begingroup\$

Ans, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"

$ is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

J--, 28 bytes

main{echo("Hello, World!");}

main is replaced with public static void main(String[]a), echo is replaced with System.out.println, and the entire program is put in a class.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

A0A0, 57 bytes

P72P87
P101P111
P108P114
P108P108
P111P100
P44P33
P32
G-6

2 commands per line was the densest packing that I could find.

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ I get Hl,Wrdeo ol! as the output from this... \$\endgroup\$ – Sp3000 Sep 28 '15 at 12:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Sp3000 Should be fixed \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Sep 28 '15 at 20:57
0
\$\begingroup\$

STXTRM, 15 bytes

[Hello, World!]

[...] is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Argh!, 27 bytes

ppppppppppppp
Hello, World!

Each p prints the character below it.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

AutoIt, 29 bytes

ConsoleWrite("Hello, World!")

Needs to be compiled as a console program.

\$\endgroup\$
1
  • \$\begingroup\$ MsgBox(0,"","Hello, World!") is one shorter :) \$\endgroup\$ – seadoggie01 May 8 '19 at 20:37
0
\$\begingroup\$

Foobar and Foobaz and Barbaz, oh my!, 314 bytes

72 and 72 and 0, oh my.
37 and 37 and 64, oh my.
72 and 72 and 36, oh my.
. and 64 and 44, oh my.
67 and 67 and 44, oh my.
. and 44 and 0, oh my.
. and 32 and 0, oh my.
87 and 87 and 0, oh my.
40 and 40 and 71, oh my.
16 and 16 and 98, oh my.
12 and 12 and 96, oh my.
. and 64 and 36, oh my.
1 and 1 and 32, oh my.

I believe that this is an optimal solution, with each line outputting a character.

\$\endgroup\$

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