451
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

800 Answers 800

1
14 15
16
17 18
27
2
\$\begingroup\$

Incalculate (2.0), 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[pov?]

Probably won't get shorter than this.
Incalculate is an esoteric language I have written for fun, don't expect anything fancy. It uses 3 stacks for storage.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Simula (cim), 24 bytes

OutText("Hello, World!")

Try it online!

Over 750 answers and we can still find languages not yet submitted. Wowsers.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Intcode

Since Advent of Code will inevitably be adding more features to Intcode as this year's event progresses, I'll just treat the separate revisions as different languages, and add to this if a new one makes it shorter.

Day 2, N/A Bytes

Having no real way of outputting multiple values yet, the version in day 2 can't do a proper Hello World.

There is technically this 42-byte solution, but it feels like cheating because I'm pretty sure no interpreter can run it:

1,3,5,0,99,5735816763073854918203775149089

This program copies that really long number to memory location 0 (which counts as output) and then halts. The really long number happens to be Hello, World! when read in bigendian form as a string.

Day 5, 89 Bytes

In day 5, dedicated I/O instructions are added, so a proper Hello World is possible. The ability to use immediate values doesn't hurt either.

104,72,104,101,104,108,4,5,104,111,104,44,104,32,104,87,4,9,104,114,4,5,104,100,104,33,99
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Java, 82 bytes:

class Main{public static void main(String[]a){System.out.print("Hello, World!");}}
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @JoKing I think it's intended to be some kind of proof of the length - "look, it really is 82 bytes!" - but of course you could trivially verify the byte count by copy-pasting it into a text editor, so I agree that it's unnecessary. \$\endgroup\$ – F1Krazy Dec 6 '19 at 11:12
2
\$\begingroup\$

Wren, 29 bytes

System.print("Hello, World!")

Try it online!

Explanation

System.print(               ) // Output the following string:
             "Hello, World!"  // "Hello, World!"
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Intcode, 83 72 70 bytes

204,8,109,1,1205,8,0,99,72,101,108,108,111,44,32,87,111,114,108,100,33

Try it online!

Old 83 byte version:

1106,0,17,72,101,108,108,111,44,32,87,111,114,108,100,33,0,204,3,109,1,1205,3,17,99
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Consider a TIO link using your own interpreter for now? like so \$\endgroup\$ – Value Ink Dec 27 '19 at 2:30
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ValueInk Done. \$\endgroup\$ – pppery Dec 27 '19 at 2:31
2
\$\begingroup\$

Visual Basic Script, 21 bytes

MsgBox"Hello, World!"

You can try it by making a .txt file with that text in it, changing the extension to .vbs and running it.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to the site! As this is a very busy question, you should be aware that your answer may not be unique. However, it is just as valid either way. Would it be possible to edit in a link to an online testing site, such as Try it online! so that others can verify your answer? \$\endgroup\$ – caird coinheringaahing Aug 29 '19 at 14:50
2
\$\begingroup\$

tq, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"

Pretty much just defines a list with the only item as the string "Hello, World!".

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

KRC, 17 bytes

This defines a function returning the string "Hello, World!". No trailing newline because it's shorter. (I've made a repl.it for KRC.)

f="Hello, World!"

Demo:

$ ./krc demo/hello
Kent Recursive Calculator 1.0
revised 2016.03.31
/h for help
krc> f!
Hello, World!krc>
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

><>, 25 bytes

!v"!dlroW ,olleH"!
o>l?!;

Try it online!

My second answer in this language so far, started learning only today, thought this would be a good starting point

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Deadfish~, 1 byte

w

Try it online!

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

evil, 70 bytes

aeeeaeeewueuueweeueeuewwaaaweaaewaeaawueweeeaeeewaaawueeueweeaweeeueuw

Try it online!

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Just in case you missed it, there is a shorter evil solution, posted by my pronoun is monicareinstate 2 months ago. \$\endgroup\$ – manatwork Jun 19 at 0:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ @manatwork oh whoops. does that mean I should take this down? \$\endgroup\$ – AdamS Jun 19 at 12:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ No, there is nothing against such solutions. Mentioned it more as fun fact. \$\endgroup\$ – manatwork Jun 19 at 15:51
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Actually I also missed the relevant one: grc posted this exact evil solution 4 years 6 months ago. ☹ \$\endgroup\$ – manatwork Jun 21 at 2:47
2
\$\begingroup\$

Jsonnet (with -S), 15 characters

"Hello, World!"

(Where -S stands for --string, meaning “Expect a string, manifest as plain text”.)

Sample run:

bash-5.0$ jsonnet -Se '"Hello, World!"'
Hello, World!
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

FerNANDo, 109 bytes

7 7
3
5 5
6 5
4 3 3
0 5 3 0 7 3 0 0
0 5 7 0 0 5 0 4
0 6 5 2 4 6 2 3
0 6 6 0 7 7 2 3
0 6 6 2 5 4 7 4
2 2
3 5
3

Try it online!

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

CSS, 62 bytes:

*{display:none}html{display:flex}:after{content:'Hello World!'

This is the first pure CSS on here, I think.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

dotcomma, 494 bytes

[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[.][.].,][,.].,][,.].,][,.].,][,.].,][.].,][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.].,][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.].,][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.].,][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.][.].,][.].,][.][.][.][.][.][.][.].,],],][.][.][.].,],][.][.][.].,][,][[,.][[[,][,][,][[,.][[[,][[,.][[[,][,][,][,][[,.][[[,][,][,][,][,][,][,][[,.][[[,][,][,][,][[,.][[[,][,][,][,][[,.][[[,]]].,]]].,]]].,]]].,]]].,]]].,]]].,]]

Dotcomma is a language I made, designed to do as much as possible with the fewest instructions. Interestingly, it uses a queue rather than a stack. The final state of the queue is used as output.

I've put a high level explanation below, but even I don't fully understand how I got this to work :p

The easy part was generating all the necessary letters, ordered by code point ( !,HWdellloor):

First, it generates the code point for a space (32): [[[[[[.][.].,][,.].,][,.].,][,.].,][,.].,]. Then, it wraps that in a number of [<n> [.]* .,] blocks, which increment the value and adds it to the queue, with the number of [.]s being the amount it increments

Then it needs to sort the queue so that it displays in the correct order (Hello, World!):

Without an accumulator or second queue, this is difficult. The workaround is to use the execution order to read a value, perform an operation that modifies the queue, then add the result (0) to the previously read value. This re-adds the value into the queue, at the end. If the operation performed is a shift, the stored value can be placed anywhere into the queue. Working backwards from ! to , it will shift the queue with a number of [,]s. The temporary addition-based storage is implemented as [[,.] [[ <previous letter> ]] .,]. Importantly, this is nested in a way that each time it does this is returns 0 so it won't mess up the rest. Luckily, after the , is shifted, Hello is already in order.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

MAWP 2.0, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!":
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ MWP? New language? \$\endgroup\$ – null Aug 28 at 11:58
  • \$\begingroup\$ @HighlyRadioactive most likely changing to MAWP 2.0, as it only adds support for strings, floats and negative numbers with some quality of life changes added on top \$\endgroup\$ – Dion Aug 28 at 17:23
  • \$\begingroup\$ Competition ends (MAWP is now a golfing language) \$\endgroup\$ – null Aug 29 at 2:01
2
\$\begingroup\$

Desmos, 41 bytes

[40,69,76,76,79,12,0,55,79,82,76,68,1]+32

View it online

Desmos doesn't support strings, so we return an array of integers representing the codepoints instead. There's no good way to view an entire array at once in Desmos, so instead you can check it by taking the output by wrapping it in parenthesis or storing it in a variable, then accessing (1-indexed) array items like a[1] or ([40,...,1]+32)[1]. Or just add 32 to the numbers in the array to check that they're right.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

C++, 59 bytes

#include <iostream>
int main(){std::cout<<"Hello, World!";}
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Isn't the newline optional? \$\endgroup\$ – jrich Aug 28 '15 at 14:14
  • \$\begingroup\$ @UndefinedFunction try it. It will not work without a new line \$\endgroup\$ – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:36
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Isn't printf smaller? #include <cstdio>? \$\endgroup\$ – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:37
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @georgeunix My comment referred to a previous version, in which it read cout<<"Hello, World!\n". The \n was removed, since a newline was not required after the output. \$\endgroup\$ – jrich Aug 28 '15 at 17:39
  • \$\begingroup\$ Oh OK, sorry for that @UndefinedFunction \$\endgroup\$ – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:39
1
\$\begingroup\$

Stackstack, 20 Bytes

This is a stack-based language not focused on golfing! Looks similar to Forth, and was made two years ago.

"Hello, World!"print
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

STATA, 17 bytes

di"Hello, World!"
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Algoid, 28 bytes

text.output("Hello, World!")

Now that's just boring in such a fun language... Here's a slightly longer version, let's get some colours going for 104 bytes:

algo.hide()
algo.setColor(algo.color.GREEN)
algo.setBgColor(algo.color.DARK_RED)
algo.text("Hello, World!")

See the output here

Okay I've finished for the day now :)

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Enema, 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[DZBO]

How it works

"!dlroW ,olleH" Push those characters (including a null byte) on the stack.
[               Infinite loop:
  D               Duplicate the topmost element on the stack.
  Z               If it is non-zero, skip the next instruction.
    B             Break out of the loop.
  O             Output as a character.
]
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

dc, 16 bytes

[Hello, World!]p

I can't think of any way to get this one shorter.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Element, 17 bytes

Hello\,\ World\!`

The ` outputs the string, while the \s are used to escape out of other characters.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

FALSE, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Io, 21 bytes

"Hello, World!" write
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ This Io (TIO) seems to have print, but not write. Is this another language with the same name? \$\endgroup\$ – Dennis Feb 11 '18 at 15:40
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Dennis It appears to have write, but it appears to write to some mysterious location/file/somewhere else instead of STDOUT \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Apr 13 '18 at 8:35
1
\$\begingroup\$

Objective-C, 30 bytes

main(){puts("Hello, World!");}
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Ada (GNAT), 54 bytes

procedure gnat.io.a is begin put("Hello, World!");end;

This trick is from anarchy golf: by defining your program in the GNAT.IO namespace, you have access to the put function, which is shorter than the usual way to print strings.

| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Curry, 26 bytes

main=putStr"Hello, World!"
| improve this answer | |
\$\endgroup\$
1
14 15
16
17 18
27

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