# “Hello, World!”

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

## The Rules

• Each submission must be a full program.
• The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
• The program must not write anything to STDERR.
• If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

• Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
• This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
• If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

## The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

## Language Name, N bytes


where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes


If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes


You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes


/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(a) {
});
comment_page = 1;
}
});
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(c) {
if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
});
else process();
}
});
}

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

function getAuthorName(a) {
return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
var valid = [];

var body = a.body;
if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
});

var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
if (match)
valid.push({
user: getAuthorName(a),
size: +match[2],
language: match[1],
});
else console.log(body);
});

valid.sort(function (a, b) {
var aB = a.size,
bB = b.size;
return aB - bB
});

var languages = {};
var place = 1;
var lastSize = null;
var lastPlace = 1;
valid.forEach(function (a) {
if (a.size != lastSize)
lastPlace = place;
lastSize = a.size;
++place;

.replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)

var lang = a.language;
lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();

languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
});

var langs = [];
for (var lang in languages)
if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
langs.push(languages[lang]);

langs.sort(function (a, b) {
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
return 0;
});

for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
{
var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
var lang = langs[i];
language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
.replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
language = jQuery(language);
jQuery("#languages").append(language);
}

}
body {
text-align: left !important;
display: block !important;
}

width: 290px;
float: left;
}

#language-list {
width: 500px;
float: left;
}

font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<div id="language-list">
<h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
<table class="language-list">
<tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
<tbody id="languages">

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
</tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
<tbody id="language-template">
</tbody>
</table>

• @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
• If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
• @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
• @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
• @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

# Alchemist, 24 22 bytes

_->Out_"Hello, World!"


Try it online!

# Xanathar, 24 bytes

printf["Hello, World!"];


Xanathar is a work in progress language, so it is rather hard to use.

Compilation:

$xanathar helloworld.xan$ ./helloworld.xan.o

• Link to interpreter no longer works – ASCII-only Dec 26 '18 at 0:01
• @ascii-only fixed – NoOneIsHere Dec 26 '18 at 0:38

# Grocery List, 94 bytes

H

w
nnn
d
v
d
v
l
c
u
v
r
v
o
c
u
v
W
nn
c
c
m
c
m
m
w
nnn
c
m
d
nnnn
m
b
b
c
v
e
v
H
l
p
e
t

• Could you please link to the interpreter you used to test this? – Dennis Jan 2 '19 at 12:34
• From the challenge spec: Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. The only interpreter I know of is this one, but your program just prints H in it. – Dennis Jan 2 '19 at 12:59
• fixed, but space can't print – u_ndefined Jan 2 '19 at 13:29
• The output looks fine now, but the program seems to exit by popping from an empty stack and the challenge says The program must not write anything to STDERR. – Dennis Jan 2 '19 at 13:40

# Clam, 15 bytes

p+[[ua+ua,]"!"]


Try it online!

Oh boy, he did it again, he started another language.

## Explanation

All functions and operators in Clam are prefix

p+[[ua+ua,]"!"]
p                Print
[...........]  Argument list
[......]        Standalone list
u                Uppercase the first letter of..
a               ..the string at dictionary index..
+              ..42 (+) - 32 = 10, dictionary[10] = 'hello'
ua,           Do the same as above for index 11, 'world'
End of list, standalone list concatenates its
contents as strings with ', ' as delimiter
"!"     String literal
End of argument list, Addition also acts as string concat


Transpiled JS code:

console.log('Hello, World' + "!");


# K5+iKe, 44 bytes

iKe is a way to "rapidly write event-driven graphical programs in K" (to quote the README).

draw:,(0 0;cga;~,/'+text@0+"Hello, World!")


To try it, go here, replace the text in the box with the above program, and hit the big right arrow button.

# Tamsin, 27 20 bytes

main='Hello, World!'.


This is an interesting language.

# ARMv7 machine language on Linux, 40 36 32 bytes

 0: fa000002         blx 12          ;put string addr in lr; thumb mode
4: 48 65 6c 6c 6f   "Hello, World!\0"
2c 20 57 6f 72
6c 64 21 00
12: 2001             movs r0, #1     ;stdout is fd=1
14: 220d             movs r2, #13    ;length of string
16: 4671             mov r1, lr      ;put string addr in r1
18: 2704             movs r7, #4     ;select write() syscall
1a: df00             svc 0           ;syscall
1c: 2701             movs r7, #1     ;select exit() syscall
1e: df00             svc 0           ;syscall


To try this out on a Raspberry Pi or Android device with GNURoot, compile and run the following

const char main[]="\2\0\0\xfaHello, World!\0\1 \r\"qF\4'\0\xdf\1'\0\xdf";


# Turing Machine But Way Worse, 853 bytes

0 0 0 1 1 0 0
0 1 1 1 2 0 0
0 2 0 1 3 0 0
0 3 0 1 4 0 0
0 4 1 1 5 1 0
0 5 1 1 6 0 0
0 6 0 1 7 0 0
0 7 1 0 8 0 0
0 8 0 0 9 0 0
1 9 1 0 a 0 0
1 a 0 0 b 0 0
0 b 0 0 c 0 0
0 c 1 1 d 1 0
0 d 0 1 e 0 0
0 e 1 1 f 0 0
1 f 1 1 g 0 0
0 g 0 1 g 0 0
1 g 0 0 h 1 0
0 h 0 1 i 1 0
0 i 1 0 i 0 0
1 i 1 1 j 1 0
1 j 1 1 k 0 0
1 k 1 1 l 0 0
0 l 0 1 m 0 0
0 m 0 1 n 0 0
0 n 1 1 o 0 0
0 o 0 1 p 0 0
0 p 1 1 q 0 0
0 q 1 0 r 1 0
1 r 0 1 s 0 0
1 s 0 1 t 1 0
0 t 0 1 u 0 0
0 u 1 0 v 0 0
0 v 0 0 v 0 0
1 v 1 0 w 0 0
0 w 0 0 w 0 0
1 w 1 0 x 0 0
1 x 1 0 x 0 0
0 x 1 1 y 0 0
1 y 0 0 z 0 0
1 z 1 0 A 0 0
1 A 0 1 B 1 0
1 B 0 1 C 0 0
0 C 1 0 D 0 0
0 D 0 0 E 0 0
0 E 1 1 F 1 0
0 F 1 1 G 0 0
1 G 0 1 G 0 0
0 G 0 0 H 0 0
0 H 0 0 I 0 0
0 I 1 0 J 1 0
0 J 1 0 J 0 0
1 J 0 1 K 0 0
1 K 1 1 K 0 0
0 K 0 0 L 0 0
1 L 0 0 M 1 0
1 M 1 0 N 0 0
1 N 0 1 O 1 0
1 O 0 1 P 0 0
0 P 0 1 P 0 0
1 P 1 1 P 1 1


Try it online!

## Incalculate (2.0), 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[pov?]


Probably won't get shorter than this.
Incalculate is an esoteric language I have written for fun, don't expect anything fancy. It uses 3 stacks for storage.

## Pxem, 0+17=17 bytes

Using the filename as data without counting the length is cheating. Therefore it is 17 bytes. (It even uses the filename extension as part of the program!)

Save the program as

Hello, World!.pxe


and the file contents should be empty.

• You know, just testing Feeds... – user85052 Jan 10 at 4:07

# International Phonetic Esoteric Language, 16 bytes (WIP language)

<Hello, World!>o


No TIO interpreter yet, but is runnable by cloning the repository above, and calling python main.py "code here".

<Hello, World!>o

<Hello, World!>  ;push string "Hello, World!"
o ;pop, print
$$$$


with Text_IO;procedure H is
begin
Text_IO.Put("Hello, World!");end;


Thanks to 3D1T0R and breadbox for improving this!

Try it online!

• I'm not all that familiar with Ada, but took a swing at 'golf'ing this down a bit. Please evaluate: ideone.com/JjmhIt 75 bytes. – 3D1T0R May 29 '18 at 19:31
• Also note that the Ada. can be dropped (both places) to save 8 bytes. – breadbox May 29 '18 at 21:20
• Wow, somebody replied to this over a year later! You can combine 3D1T0R's golf with breadbox's tip to golf it down quite a bit. – python-b5 May 30 '18 at 20:25
• @breadbox: I could have sworn I tried that, but apparently not. I kind of doubt this can be golfed much more. – 3D1T0R May 31 '18 at 21:22
• TIO link pls – ASCII-only Dec 26 '18 at 1:02

# 1+, 87 83 bytes

11+""+"""+"/*^/"\+""+";\\+"*"1+;/+""";;(|1+1+1+)";/^""1()"+()+"1+";+^;;\";();/;;1+;


Try it online!

This should be very golfable, but it is hard to golf 1+ directly.

• Nice! I'm doing nothing now. – HighlyRadioactive Oct 9 '19 at 9:56

# CRPL and its sister language PRPL, 21 bytes

Bit of an obscure language, but the official tutorial doesn't contain a Hello World program so this at least is worth something.

"Hello, World!" Trace


"Hello, World!" pushes the string Hello, World! to the stack, and Trace pops an item from the stack and add it to the trace log, the closest thing the language has to SDTOUT or a console.

Alas, for this language is too obscure for Dennis's gadget; however, I have written the following interpreter in JS with all the complexity needed for this demo. I may one day make it support more.

var code = '"Hello, world!" Trace';
var stack = [];
var vars = Object.create(null);

var literals = [];
code = code.replace(/"(.*?)"/g, (m, $1) => 'lit' + [literals.length, literals.push($1)][0]).split(/\s/);

for (var token of code) {
if (token.match(/^lit(\d+)$/)) { stack.push(literals[token.slice(3)]); } else if (token.match(/^-?\d+.?\d*/)) { stack.push(+token); } else if (token.startsWith('<-')) { stack.push(vars[token.slice(2)]); } else if (token.startsWith('->')) { vars['v' + token.slice(2)] = stack.pop(); } else { switch(token) { case 'Trace5': console.log(stack.pop()); case 'Trace4': console.log(stack.pop()); case 'Trace3': console.log(stack.pop()); case 'Trace2': console.log(stack.pop()); case 'Trace': console.log(stack.pop()); break; default: throw new Error(token + 'is not implemented.'); } } } • No language is too obscure, you just have to ask for it on talk.tryitonline.net lol – ASCII-only Apr 11 '18 at 6:34 • Yeah probably. You could've just edited it yourself. – Nissa Dec 6 '19 at 22:54 # Visual Basic Script, 21 bytes MsgBox"Hello, World!"  You can try it by making a .txt file with that text in it, changing the extension to .vbs and running it. • Welcome to the site! As this is a very busy question, you should be aware that your answer may not be unique. However, it is just as valid either way. Would it be possible to edit in a link to an online testing site, such as Try it online! so that others can verify your answer? – caird coinheringaahing Aug 29 '19 at 14:50 # Ral, 103 bytes What better way to introduce a new language than by posting the 768th "Hello, World!"? Hand-made code, can probably be improved a lot. 11+:+:+:0=1+:+:+::+:.+0*/-::1+.0*+:::..1+1+1+::.0*:+:+:11+1+:+:++..10*1+1+1+:+:+:+-..1+1+1+...0*:+:+1+.  Try it online! • Cool language! I like the mix of stack and random access. – Redwolf Programs Apr 12 at 23:25 # Wd, 12 10 bytes (SBCS) .s*♪╧T≈╪√ù  ## Explanation This program is a compressed program. After decompression this becomes: J=QwTI[5mRb  After string-decompression: Hello, World!"  After quote auto-completion: "Hello, World!"  After which it is implicitly output. # Roj, 18 bytes I love this simple BASIC dialect ... out"Hello, World!"  # Explanation out$ Output $"Hello, World!"$ the string "Hello, World" \$


# Cood, 378 bytes

I want 72 of this
Im very hungry
More 29 of this
Im very hungry
More 7 of this
Im very hungry
Im very hungry
More 3 of this
Im very hungry
Less 67 of this
Im very hungry
Less 12 of this
Im very hungry
More 55 of this
Im very hungry
More 24 of this
Im very hungry
More 3 of this
Im very hungry
Less 6 of this
Im very hungry
Less 8 of this
Im very hungry
Less 67 of this
Im hungry


Try it online!

• 378 bytes: Try it online! – my pronoun is monicareinstate Apr 11 at 9:47
• I do not even use the TIO front page most of the time: I simply type in something like tio.run/#cood – my pronoun is monicareinstate Apr 11 at 10:47
• Ahh, I see. I don't know why it doesn't appear on the front page though. – Λ̸̸ Apr 11 at 10:48
• It appears for me when I type Cood in the search bar. – my pronoun is monicareinstate Apr 11 at 10:52

# evil, 62 58 bytes

no I haven't read through the over 500 other answers to make sure I'm adding something new
Found via computer search within a restricted subset of evil.

aeeaeayekeulaaaweevuewpuuuwwlweaaewguwuewpaaawaaawpweeawgw


Uses the instructions:

a increment the accumulator
u decrement the accumulator
z accumulator = 0
e weave operator (bitwise 01234567 to 20416375 on the accumulator)
w write character
k set the first pental cell to the accumulator
g set the accumulator to the first pental cell
v swap the accumulator and the first pental cell
y set the first wheel cell to the accumulator
l set the accumulator to the first wheel cell
p swap the accumulator and the first wheel cell


The pental is a thingy that stores 5 bytes and can be rotated; I don't rotate it though. The wheel is a circular list that starts at 1 element; I don't add/remove to/from it.

Try it online!

# vJASS, 81 bytes

//! inject main
call BJDebugMsg("Hello, World!")
//! dovjassinit
//! endinject


This language is used for Warcraft 3, mostly custom maps. This is the shortest code you can get.

# C++, 59 bytes

#include <iostream>
int main(){std::cout<<"Hello, World!";}

• Isn't the newline optional? – jrich Aug 28 '15 at 14:14
• @UndefinedFunction try it. It will not work without a new line – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:36
• Isn't printf smaller? #include <cstdio>? – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:37
• @georgeunix My comment referred to a previous version, in which it read cout<<"Hello, World!\n". The \n was removed, since a newline was not required after the output. – jrich Aug 28 '15 at 17:39
• Oh OK, sorry for that @UndefinedFunction – galexite Aug 28 '15 at 17:39

# Stackstack, 20 Bytes

This is a stack-based language not focused on golfing! Looks similar to Forth, and was made two years ago.

"Hello, World!"print


## STATA, 17 bytes

di"Hello, World!"


# Algoid, 28 bytes

text.output("Hello, World!")


Now that's just boring in such a fun language... Here's a slightly longer version, let's get some colours going for 104 bytes:

algo.hide()
algo.setColor(algo.color.GREEN)
algo.setBgColor(algo.color.DARK_RED)
algo.text("Hello, World!")


See the output here

Okay I've finished for the day now :)

# Enema, 21 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[DZBO]


### How it works

"!dlroW ,olleH" Push those characters (including a null byte) on the stack.
[               Infinite loop:
D               Duplicate the topmost element on the stack.
Z               If it is non-zero, skip the next instruction.
B             Break out of the loop.
O             Output as a character.
]


# dc, 16 bytes

[Hello, World!]p


I can't think of any way to get this one shorter.

# Element, 17 bytes

Hello\,\ World\!


The  outputs the string, while the \s are used to escape out of other characters.

# FALSE, 15 bytes

"Hello, World!"


# Io, 21 bytes

"Hello, World!" write

• This Io (TIO) seems to have print, but not write. Is this another language with the same name? – Dennis Feb 11 '18 at 15:40
• @Dennis It appears to have write`, but it appears to write to some mysterious location/file/somewhere else instead of STDOUT – ASCII-only Apr 13 '18 at 8:35