408
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Must the language meet our usual requirements for what a programming language is, or are we operating by kolmogorov complexity rules? \$\endgroup\$ – isaacg Aug 28 '15 at 13:54
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 7
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01

748 Answers 748

1
\$\begingroup\$

𒅴 𒆰, 21 bytes

𒁺("Hello, World!")

Try it online!

This is a language written in Cuneiform, and uses Sumerian words as keywords.

At its heart, this is just a translation of Python into Sumerian, but in the future there will be new features added, such as the Babylonian numeral system (which works in base 60).

Because it relies heavily on unicode, this is not going to be a very good golfing language.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ You could always translate from unicode to a golfier encoding :P \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Dec 26 '18 at 0:10
1
\$\begingroup\$

ObCode, 68 bytes

Hexdump:

0000000: 9a62 c6c6 ca78 b665 a999 4ea9 5995 aa66  .b...x.e..N.Y..f
0000010: 53a9 6363 6665 3958 d996 a539 6363 6565  S.ccfe9X...9ccee
0000020: 6363 6656 5396 3636 3656 65a9 9594 ea8d  ccfVS.666Ve.....
0000030: 9599 6aa5 6339 6395 9599 594e 5656 5665  ..j.c9c...YNVVVe
0000040: aa99 94e5                                ....

Explanation

Unpacking the program gives the following object:

((())()(())((()())((())())((())())(()()(())))((()())())(())(()())()()(())(())(()()(()))()()()(()()())(())(()()())()()()(())(())(()()(()))()()(()())((())())((())())(())(())(()()(()))(()()())((())())(())(()())()()(()()(()))(()())((())())((())())(()()())(()()())((())())((())())(())(()()())(()()(()))(()())((())())((())())((())())(()()())(())(()())()()(())(()()())(()()(()))()()()((())())(()()())(())(()())()()()()(()()())((())(()))(()())((()))(()()())(()()())(())(()()())(()()(()))(()()())(()()())(()()())(())(()())()()()()(())(())(()()(()))(()()()))

Indented and commented, this gives:

( Start of main object
    (()) Define () (()) doing: (
        (()()) Save top stack value to register
        ((())()) ((())()) Push twice
        (()()(())) Concatenate
        This code will double an object
    ) ((()())())
    (()) (()()) Push 2
    () () Double it twice, producing 8
    (()) (()) Push 1
    (()()(())) Add: 8 + 1 = 9
    () () () Double thrice, producing 72
    (()()()) Output 72 = 'H'; Stack: empty
    (()) (()()()) Push 3
    () () () Double thrice, producing 24
    (()) (()) (()()(())) Add 1, producing 25
    () () Double twice, producing 100
    (()()) ((())()) ((())()) Duplicate and save to register
    (()) (()) (()()(())) Add 1, producing 101
    (()()()) Output 101 = 'e'; Stack: 100
    ((())()) Load 100 from register
    (()) (()()) Push 2
    () () Double twice, producing 8
    (()()(())) Add 100 + 8 = 108
    (()()) ((())()) ((())()) Duplicate and save to register
    (()()()) (()()()) Output both 108 = 'l'; Stack: 100
    ((())()) ((())()) Load 108 twice
    (()) (()()()) Push 3
    (()()(())) Add 108 + 3 = 111
    (()()) ((())()) ((())()) ((())()) Triplicate
    (()()()) Output 111 = 'o'; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111
    (()) (()()) Push 2
    () () Double twice, producing 8
    (()) (()()()) Push 3
    (()()(())) Add 8 + 3 = 11
    () () () Double thrice, producing 88
    ((())()) Load 44, saved by the last doubling
    (()()()) Output 44 = ','; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111, 88
    (()) (()()) Push 2
    () () () () Double four times, producing 32
    (()()()) Output 32 = ' '; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111, 88
    ((())(())) Use 88 as new stack
    (()()) Load 1
    ((())) Exit the stack which is now 87
    (()()()) Output 87 = 'H'; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111
    (()()()) Output 111 = 'o'; Stack: 100, 108, 111
    (()) (()()()) Push 3
    (()()(())) Add 111 + 3 = 114
    (()()()) Output 114 = 'r'; Stack: 100, 108
    (()()()) Output 108 = 'l'; Stack: 100
    (()()()) Output 100 = 'd'; Stack: empty
    (()) (()()) Push 2
    () () () () Double four times, producing 32
    (()) (()) Push 1
    (()()(())) Add 32 + 1 = 33
    (()()()) Output 33 = '!'
) End of main object
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ I don't understand why anybody cares about this language .__. \$\endgroup\$ – Esolanging Fruit Feb 2 at 18:32
1
\$\begingroup\$

ABC, 21 bytes

WRITE "Hello, World!"

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

ABC-assembler, 80 39 bytes

.start s
s
 print "Hello, World!"
 halt

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ 78? \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Dec 25 '18 at 22:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ASCII-only even shorter actually. \$\endgroup\$ – Οurous Dec 25 '18 at 22:46
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Haha, I almost got that :P where are the docs for this btw \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Dec 25 '18 at 22:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ASCII-only there's a paper here but there aren't really any. \$\endgroup\$ – Οurous Dec 25 '18 at 22:51
1
\$\begingroup\$

LC-3 object file, 36 bytes

.ORIG x3000
LEA R0, TEXT
TRAP x22
HALT
TEXT .STRINGZ "Hello, World!"
.END

This compiles to an object file:

ibug@ubuntu:~ $ hexdump -Cv hello.obj
00000000  30 00 e0 02 f0 22 f0 25  00 48 00 65 00 6c 00 6c  |0....".%.H.e.l.l|
00000010  00 6f 00 2c 00 20 00 57  00 6f 00 72 00 6c 00 64  |.o.,. .W.o.r.l.d|
00000020  00 21 00 00                                       |.!..|
00000024
ibug@ubuntu:~ $ stat -c "%s" hello.obj
36
ibug@ubuntu:~ $
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

JS (Windows Script Host), 25 bytes

WSH.Echo("Hello, World!")

I don't know if someone did already post Windows Script Host JS.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Different languages should usually go in separate answers. Especially in challenges like this one which has an automatic leaderboard - only your first language shows up there. \$\endgroup\$ – Ørjan Johansen Mar 22 at 1:14
1
\$\begingroup\$

VBS (Windows Script Host), 26 bytes

WScript.Echo "Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

VTL-2, 21 bytes

1 ?="Hello, World!"

? is the I/O system variable in VTL-2. Byte count may seem off, but line numbers are always two bytes, and the CR at the end of the line is mandatory and counted. Space between line numbers and commands is also mandatory.

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Keg, 15 bytes

Hello\, world\!

Keg pushes all of the unrecognized commands onto the stack (with , and ! escaped). After the program terminates, it prints the content of the stack.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Now I feel bad. \$\endgroup\$ – A__ Aug 10 at 7:58
0
\$\begingroup\$

Groovy, 20 bytes

print"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

rs, 14 bytes

/Hello, World!

Replaces the empty string with "Hello, World!"

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Axo, 29 bytes

"!dlroW, o%
\%#[<"Hell<
 >( ^

Please let me know if this can be golfed further.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Another 29 byte solution: "!dlroW ,olleH"(((((((((((((\ \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Feb 6 at 3:42
  • \$\begingroup\$ You may want to consider putting in a TIO link to make it more accessible for others to test it \$\endgroup\$ – MilkyWay90 Apr 21 at 22:50
0
\$\begingroup\$

WARP, 16 bytes

)"Hello, World!"

) is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

ACIDIC, 16 bytes

Hello, World!
+*

Prints the entire storage stack, which is filled with Hello, World!.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

[], 20 bytes

(({<[Hello, World!})

Don't ask me how this works.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ How does this work? \$\endgroup\$ – NieDzejkob Apr 29 '17 at 17:41
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @NieDzejkob Good question! \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Apr 29 '17 at 17:43
  • \$\begingroup\$ Here is some documentation on how this works. It works because (({<x) prints the value of x. What remains is to convert "Hello, World!" into something printable by putting it in the declareDataX function [x} like [Hello, World!}. Therefore the program is (({<[Hello, World!}). At least I think that is how it works. \$\endgroup\$ – NK1406 Dec 15 '18 at 20:10
0
\$\begingroup\$

Ans, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"

$ is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

J--, 28 bytes

main{echo("Hello, World!");}

main is replaced with public static void main(String[]a), echo is replaced with System.out.println, and the entire program is put in a class.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

A0A0, 57 bytes

P72P87
P101P111
P108P114
P108P108
P111P100
P44P33
P32
G-6

2 commands per line was the densest packing that I could find.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ I get Hl,Wrdeo ol! as the output from this... \$\endgroup\$ – Sp3000 Sep 28 '15 at 12:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Sp3000 Should be fixed \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Sep 28 '15 at 20:57
0
\$\begingroup\$

STXTRM, 15 bytes

[Hello, World!]

[...] is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Argh!, 27 bytes

ppppppppppppp
Hello, World!

Each p prints the character below it.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

AutoIt, 29 bytes

ConsoleWrite("Hello, World!")

Needs to be compiled as a console program.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ MsgBox(0,"","Hello, World!") is one shorter :) \$\endgroup\$ – seadoggie01 May 8 at 20:37
0
\$\begingroup\$

Foobar and Foobaz and Barbaz, oh my!, 314 bytes

72 and 72 and 0, oh my.
37 and 37 and 64, oh my.
72 and 72 and 36, oh my.
. and 64 and 44, oh my.
67 and 67 and 44, oh my.
. and 44 and 0, oh my.
. and 32 and 0, oh my.
87 and 87 and 0, oh my.
40 and 40 and 71, oh my.
16 and 16 and 98, oh my.
12 and 12 and 96, oh my.
. and 64 and 36, oh my.
1 and 1 and 32, oh my.

I believe that this is an optimal solution, with each line outputting a character.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Tarflex, 18 bytes

outs Hello, World!

outs is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

SSBPL, 33 bytes

0'!'d'l'r'o'W' ','o'l$'e'H[$][.]#

This pushes the ASCII for "Hello, World!" followed by a 0 onto the stack, then prints the top value while it isn't zero.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Super Stack!, 66 bytes

0 33 100 108 114 111 87 32 44 111 108 108 101 72 if outputascii fi

Pushes the letters followed by a zero onto the stack, and prints them while they aren't zero.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Swap, 13 bytes

Hello, World!

Similar to ///, but swaps the terms instead of replacing them.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

ZeptoBasic, 21 bytes

print "Hello, World!"

print is the standard output mechanism.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

EEL, 93 bytes

(Also known as Extensible Esoteric Language)

def(z|-1;x;z)
def(d|c;z)
72
d
101
d
108
c
d
111
d
44
d
32
d
87
d
111
d
114
d
108
d
100
d
33
d

I'm sure this could be golfed quite a lot, but this is something I whipped up pretty quick. All it does is define some helpful functions and use them to display "Hello, World!"

Also, this DOES print "Hello, World!" with the characters separated by newlines, but I can't do anything about that, it's impossible in EEL.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ its obviously not that extensible if you can't do the challenge... \$\endgroup\$ – Destructible Lemon Jul 16 '17 at 14:26
0
\$\begingroup\$

~English, 29 bytes

Display "Hello, World!".Stop.
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Wat, 47 + 1 = 48 bytes

0«!dlroW ,olleH»>ó#ÐÑÅv
                ^     <

I post a explanation tomorrow Here is the explanation:

First line:

0«!dlroW ,olleH»>ó#ÐÑÅv

0«!dlroW ,olleH»        Push a reversed null terminated string
                >       Go forward
                 ó      Duplicate the top of stack
                  #     Skip the next instruction
                   Ð    Kill all "execution engines" (end the program)
                    Ñ   If the top of the stack is 0, go backward (execute Ð and end the program), otherwise go forward
                     Å  Print the character on the top of the stack
                      v Go downward
Second line:

                ^     <

Simply loop from the 'v' to the '>'
\$\endgroup\$

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