466
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
21
  • 3
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 8
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. \$\endgroup\$ – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

827 Answers 827

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0
\$\begingroup\$

SNOBOL4 (CSNOBOL4), 29 28 bytes

 OUTPUT ='Hello, World!'
END

Try it online!

Thanks to Ørjan Johansen for saving a byte!

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1
  • \$\begingroup\$ The space after = can be removed. \$\endgroup\$ – Ørjan Johansen Dec 11 '17 at 20:09
0
\$\begingroup\$

uBASIC, 17 bytes

0?"Hello, World!"

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

MY-BASIC, 20 bytes

Print"Hello, World!"

Try it online!

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0
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Commentator, 197 bytes

         {-        -}!/*{-{-           {-         -}!  /*       /*/*   /*-}-}#    {-   -}!/*{- e#-}///*{-e#-}//{-#  -}!{-# e#-}///*{-{-/*   /*{-e#-}//   /*-}-}             /*#   {-            -}!/*

Try it online!

I'm genuinely surprised it took me this long to make a somewhat golfed Hello, World! program in Commentator.

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0
\$\begingroup\$

17, 71

777{44 $ 5g $ 66 : : $ $ 69 : $ 1f $ 52 $ $ 6c $ $ 5f $ 1g $ a $ 0 @}

Explantation:

Pushes ascii values for Hello World!(in base 17). Then store 17 at 0, to make it exit by relying on the fact that if it tries to pop at number and the stack is empty it return 17 to save two characters.

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0
\$\begingroup\$

Unnamed, 14 Bytes

Unnamed is an unfinished language, only custom output is supported at the time of posting this. But it works.

!Hello, World!   

Explanation

! -> user specified output
Hello, World -> string
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1
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm reviewing this as Looks OK because in this challenge, there's no such thing as notability. \$\endgroup\$ – Nissa May 6 '18 at 0:56
0
\$\begingroup\$

brainfuck, 137 bytes

++++++++++[>+>+++>+++++++>++++++++++<<<<-]>>>++.>+.+++++++..+++.<<++++++++++++++.------------.>+++++++++++++++.>.+++.------.--------.<<+.

Try it online!


Explained :

++++++++++[>+>+++>+++++++>++++++++++<<<<-]>>>++.                       H
>+.                                                                    e
+++++++..                                                             l l
+++.                                                                   o
<<++++++++++++++.                                                    comma
------------.                                                        space
>+++++++++++++++.                                                      W
>.                                                                     o
+++.                                                                   r
------.                                                                l
--------.                                                              d
<<+.                                                                   !

This can definitely be golfed. (World record is 72 bytes so I already know that)


This is basic hard coded answer, simply gets the Ascii value, resets and keeps going

brainfuck, 210 bytes

-[>+<-------]>-.[-]<-[>++<-----]>-.+++++++..[-]>+[+>+[<]>->]<.[-]--[>+<++++++]>+.[-]>-[-[-<]>>+<]>-.[-]-[>+<---]>++.[-]>+[+>+[<]>->]<.[-]>+[-->++[<]>-]>.[-]>+[++[++>]<<+]>+.[-]-[>++<-----]>--.[-]>-[-[-<]>>+<]>.

Try it online!

Explained :

-[>+<-------]>-.                                               H
[-]                                                             
<-[>++<-----]>-.                                               e
+++++++..                                                     l l
[-]                                               
>+[+>+[<]>->]<.                                                o
[-]
--[>+<++++++]>+.                                               ,
[-]
>-[-[-<]>>+<]>-.                                             space  
[-]
-[>+<---]>++.                                                  W
[-]
>+[+>+[<]>->]<.                                                o
[-]
>+[-->++[<]>-]>.                                               r
[-]
>+[++[++>]<<+]>+.                                              l
[-]
-[>++<-----]>--.                                               d
[-]
>-[-[-<]>>+<]>.                                                !
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

TapeBagel, 511 bytes

%% %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ @* ## %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ @* ## %++
%++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ @* @* ## %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ @* ## @* %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ @* ## %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ @* ## %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ %++ %++ %++ @* ##  %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++ %++
%++ %++ @* ## %++ %++ %++ %++ @* ##

%# - adds one to the integer index.

%% - resets the integer index to zero.

%& - the integer that the integer index is pointing to is inputted into the program.

#% - sets all of the integers to one.

## - resets all of the integers to zero.

&& - pauses the program.

&@ - clears the screen.

%++ - adds one to the integer that the integer index is pointing to

@[ int ] - outputs the integer as a character (1 = A, 2 = B, ... 26 = Z)

* - integer 0

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Sisi, 21 bytes

0print"Hello, World!"

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
0
0
\$\begingroup\$

C# (Visual C# Interactive Compiler), 22 bytes

Write("Hello, World!")

Try it online!

I realize this question has an existing C# answer which presumably uses the traditional csc.exe compiler. This answers uses the csi.exe command-line REPL.

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Ruby, 19 bytes

puts"Hello, World!"
\$\endgroup\$
2
  • \$\begingroup\$ 16 bytes - Try it online! \$\endgroup\$ – vrintle Nov 20 '20 at 8:21
  • \$\begingroup\$ @vrintle That program is invalid due to the quotes in the output. \$\endgroup\$ – LegionMammal978 Nov 28 '20 at 14:51
0
\$\begingroup\$

Golunar, 66 bytes

142209095870573693396245504627320468349603549841832242891887476756
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Python 3 + lkjqwhe, 8 bytes

import a

Well, I beat It's-a-fake-one-Daniel. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯

\$\endgroup\$
2
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ You can get shorter names - qag hasn't been taken yet \$\endgroup\$ – A username Apr 17 at 1:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Ausername I guess so, but it doesn't save bytes, and I'm too lazy to do so (not like it matters) \$\endgroup\$ – Makonede Apr 17 at 2:12
0
\$\begingroup\$

Grok, 23 bytes

`jiHello, World!
}lYW
q

Non-terminating version, 18 bytes

iHello, World!`lwh
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

PPL, 26 bytes

printLine("Hello, World!")

PPL is a programming language made by me. This technically does not fall into the category of "standard loophole", because this was not made to be a golfing language (easily deduced from the program, which uses printLine, if it were a golfing language I would call the function p.)

The function printLine simply takes any expression and outputs it to STDOUT. Also, as a sidenote, PPL stands for Primitive Programming Language; it is not yet Turing-complete.

To run a PPL program, install the NPM package, then require it and call run with the sole argument being the program string (no documentation yet.)

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Deadfish~, 1 byte

w

Try it online!

Kind of cheating really... but then I think there are some zero byte answers!

\$\endgroup\$
1
  • \$\begingroup\$ This was already posted here last year, unfortunately :( we do technically allow duplicate answers, so it is up to you if you keep or remove it \$\endgroup\$ – hyper-neutrino 1 hour ago
0
\$\begingroup\$

Vyxal, 2 bytes

kH

Pushes the built-in string Hello, World!, with implicit output.

Try it Online!

\$\endgroup\$
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