# “Hello, World!”

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

## The Rules

• Each submission must be a full program.
• The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
• The program must not write anything to STDERR.
• If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

• Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
• This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
• If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

## The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

## Language Name, N bytes


where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes


If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes


You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes


/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(a) {
});
comment_page = 1;
}
});
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(c) {
if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
});
else process();
}
});
}

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

function getAuthorName(a) {
return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
var valid = [];

var body = a.body;
if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
});

var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
if (match)
valid.push({
user: getAuthorName(a),
size: +match[2],
language: match[1],
});
else console.log(body);
});

valid.sort(function (a, b) {
var aB = a.size,
bB = b.size;
return aB - bB
});

var languages = {};
var place = 1;
var lastSize = null;
var lastPlace = 1;
valid.forEach(function (a) {
if (a.size != lastSize)
lastPlace = place;
lastSize = a.size;
++place;

.replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)

var lang = a.language;
lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();

languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
});

var langs = [];
for (var lang in languages)
if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
langs.push(languages[lang]);

langs.sort(function (a, b) {
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
return 0;
});

for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
{
var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
var lang = langs[i];
language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
.replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
language = jQuery(language);
jQuery("#languages").append(language);
}

}
body {
text-align: left !important;
display: block !important;
}

width: 290px;
float: left;
}

#language-list {
width: 500px;
float: left;
}

font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<div id="language-list">
<h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
<table class="language-list">
<tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
<tbody id="languages">

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
</tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
<tbody id="language-template">
</tbody>
</table>

• @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
• If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? – aditsu Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
• @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
• @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
• @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

IO, 20 Bytes

"Hello, World!"print


Other possibility, 21 22 Bytes

write("Hello, World!")

• Welcome to PPCG! You can add a TIO link so everybody can run your program easily. – ovs May 5 '18 at 16:45
• You can do the same in 19 bytes by removing the space between the string and print. – ovs May 5 '18 at 16:46
• I wasn't knowing about TIO. Thanks for the link – Mesabloo May 5 '18 at 16:48
• @ovs that doesn't have a comma >_> – ASCII-only May 6 '18 at 0:13
• @ASCII I put the comma and removed the space as suggested so that it's still 20 bytes – Mesabloo May 6 '18 at 6:50

# BrainfuckSubstitutor, 65 bytes

_--!+++?>>/<<
+[_>-[?+>__-/]<_<_-]>-.>?+.?..![.>]//.!.___./-.??+.


# tinyBF, 94 bytes

+|=++=>=+=|>>+>=+++++>>|>++>+++|=>=+===>>>+==>>====+++|==>=|>>>>===+++===++++++==>>+===>>>>+==


Try it online!

I noticed there wasn't a tinyBF answer here. This is based on Ksab's record-breaking brainfuck answer.

# 2Col, 2 bytes

HW


Hooray, another boring answer using a Hello world builtin.

• Does this print Hello, World! exactly or some variant of it? – Beta Decay May 24 '17 at 11:56
• @BetaDecay prints it exactly, followed by a trailing newline – Skidsdev May 24 '17 at 12:15
• Oh nice. A few answers have had built ins which don't print it correctly – Beta Decay May 24 '17 at 12:16
• The general convention when it comes to hello world programs is Hello, World! so I made HW do exactly that. Of course I'm screwed if somebody asks me to print Hello World! or Hello World – Skidsdev May 24 '17 at 12:17
• Can we get a link to more information about 2Col? [Edit: Nevermind I found the GitHub repo. github.com/gunnerwolf/2col] – 3D1T0R May 29 '18 at 16:24

-1 byte thanks to Oliver

out:'Hello, World!'

• Welcome to PPCG! The output should be Hello, World!, not Hello world!. Also, there's an escaped dot in your link; it is broken for me. – Dennis May 31 '18 at 19:55
• Based on the docs, it looks like you can omit the brackets: out:'Hello, World!' – Oliver May 31 '18 at 20:08
• Uppercase that w, and your answer will look valid :-) Also, welcome to PPCG, we're glad you're here! – Oliver May 31 '18 at 20:26
• @Oliver Thanks! Will do! :) – Azeros May 31 '18 at 20:27

# Thing, 37 bytes

Pushes the characters to the stack one by one (the second "l" is made with duplication, saving 1 byte), then concatenates them.

\!\d\l\r\o\W\ \,\o\ld\e\H++++++++++++


Try it online!

# Q#, 43 bytes

function H():String{return"Hello, World!";}


Try it online!

Might as well put it out there. Q# is Microsoft's programming language for quantum computers, not that there's anything quantum happening here.

"Now hold on a moment! This isn't a complete program!"--You, probably.

Well, it's not actually possible to write a complete program in Q#. You always have to call it from a different language. So I'm just submitting a "function", although note that while Q# is a .NET language, the function keyword actually defines a class and not a method, and the submission is equivalent to the following C# code:

public class H : Operation<QVoid, String>, ICallable
{
public H(IOperationFactory m) : base(m)
{
}

String ICallable.Name => "H";
String ICallable.FullName => "qsharp.H";
public override Func<QVoid, String> Body => (__in) =>
{
return "Hello, World!";
}

;
public override void Init()
{
}

public override IApplyData __dataIn(QVoid data) => data;
public override IApplyData __dataOut(String data) => new QTuple<String>(data);
{
return __m__.Run<H, QVoid, String>(QVoid.Instance);
}
}


You can use this link to "disassemble" Q#.

• *transpile, not disassemble – ASCII-only Dec 26 '18 at 0:44

# µ6, 25 bytes

,200,245,300,300,303,112,52,223,303,310,300,244,53


Try it online!

### Explanation

Just apply the ASCII code-points to the pairing function , - strings/string-manipulation is not really the strength of µ6 (I guess nothing really is).

## ObCode, 68 bytes

Hexdump:

0000000: 9a62 c6c6 ca78 b665 a999 4ea9 5995 aa66  .b...x.e..N.Y..f
0000010: 53a9 6363 6665 3958 d996 a539 6363 6565  S.ccfe9X...9ccee
0000020: 6363 6656 5396 3636 3656 65a9 9594 ea8d  ccfVS.666Ve.....
0000030: 9599 6aa5 6339 6395 9599 594e 5656 5665  ..j.c9c...YNVVVe
0000040: aa99 94e5                                ....


### Explanation

Unpacking the program gives the following object:

((())()(())((()())((())())((())())(()()(())))((()())())(())(()())()()(())(())(()()(()))()()()(()()())(())(()()())()()()(())(())(()()(()))()()(()())((())())((())())(())(())(()()(()))(()()())((())())(())(()())()()(()()(()))(()())((())())((())())(()()())(()()())((())())((())())(())(()()())(()()(()))(()())((())())((())())((())())(()()())(())(()())()()(())(()()())(()()(()))()()()((())())(()()())(())(()())()()()()(()()())((())(()))(()())((()))(()()())(()()())(())(()()())(()()(()))(()()())(()()())(()()())(())(()())()()()()(())(())(()()(()))(()()()))


Indented and commented, this gives:

( Start of main object
(()) Define () (()) doing: (
(()()) Save top stack value to register
((())()) ((())()) Push twice
(()()(())) Concatenate
This code will double an object
) ((()())())
(()) (()()) Push 2
() () Double it twice, producing 8
(()) (()) Push 1
(()()(())) Add: 8 + 1 = 9
() () () Double thrice, producing 72
(()()()) Output 72 = 'H'; Stack: empty
(()) (()()()) Push 3
() () () Double thrice, producing 24
(()) (()) (()()(())) Add 1, producing 25
() () Double twice, producing 100
(()()) ((())()) ((())()) Duplicate and save to register
(()) (()) (()()(())) Add 1, producing 101
(()()()) Output 101 = 'e'; Stack: 100
(()) (()()) Push 2
() () Double twice, producing 8
(()()(())) Add 100 + 8 = 108
(()()) ((())()) ((())()) Duplicate and save to register
(()()()) (()()()) Output both 108 = 'l'; Stack: 100
(()) (()()()) Push 3
(()()(())) Add 108 + 3 = 111
(()()) ((())()) ((())()) ((())()) Triplicate
(()()()) Output 111 = 'o'; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111
(()) (()()) Push 2
() () Double twice, producing 8
(()) (()()()) Push 3
(()()(())) Add 8 + 3 = 11
() () () Double thrice, producing 88
((())()) Load 44, saved by the last doubling
(()()()) Output 44 = ','; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111, 88
(()) (()()) Push 2
() () () () Double four times, producing 32
(()()()) Output 32 = ' '; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111, 88
((())(())) Use 88 as new stack
((())) Exit the stack which is now 87
(()()()) Output 87 = 'H'; Stack: 100, 108, 111, 111
(()()()) Output 111 = 'o'; Stack: 100, 108, 111
(()) (()()()) Push 3
(()()(())) Add 111 + 3 = 114
(()()()) Output 114 = 'r'; Stack: 100, 108
(()()()) Output 108 = 'l'; Stack: 100
(()()()) Output 100 = 'd'; Stack: empty
(()) (()()) Push 2
() () () () Double four times, producing 32
(()) (()) Push 1
(()()(())) Add 32 + 1 = 33
(()()()) Output 33 = '!'
) End of main object

• I don't understand why anybody cares about this language .__. – Esolanging Fruit Feb 2 at 18:32

# ABC, 21 bytes

WRITE "Hello, World!"


Try it online!

# ABC-assembler, 80 39 bytes

.start s
s
print "Hello, World!"
halt


Try it online!

• 78? – ASCII-only Dec 25 '18 at 22:42
• @ASCII-only even shorter actually. – Οurous Dec 25 '18 at 22:46
• Haha, I almost got that :P where are the docs for this btw – ASCII-only Dec 25 '18 at 22:47
• @ASCII-only there's a paper here but there aren't really any. – Οurous Dec 25 '18 at 22:51

# LC-3 object file, 36 bytes

.ORIG x3000
LEA R0, TEXT
TRAP x22
HALT
TEXT .STRINGZ "Hello, World!"
.END


This compiles to an object file:

ibug@ubuntu:~ $hexdump -Cv hello.obj 00000000 30 00 e0 02 f0 22 f0 25 00 48 00 65 00 6c 00 6c |0....".%.H.e.l.l| 00000010 00 6f 00 2c 00 20 00 57 00 6f 00 72 00 6c 00 64 |.o.,. .W.o.r.l.d| 00000020 00 21 00 00 |.!..| 00000024 ibug@ubuntu:~$ stat -c "%s" hello.obj
36
ibug@ubuntu:~ $ # JVM bytecode (OpenJDK asmtools JASM), 235 bytes public class h {public static Method main:"([Ljava/lang/String;)V" stack 2 locals 1 {getstatic java/lang/System.out:"Ljava/io/PrintStream;";ldc "Hello, World!";invokevirtual java/io/PrintStream.println:"(Ljava/lang/String;)V";return;}}  Ungolfed public class h { public static Method main:"([Ljava/lang/String;)V" stack 2 locals 1 { getstatic java/lang/System.out:"Ljava/io/PrintStream;"; ldc "Hello, World!"; invokevirtual java/io/PrintStream.println:"(Ljava/lang/String;)V"; return; } }  Pretty much the same thing as Jasmin, just with a different syntax. • I just found out about a static method sun.misc.MessageUtils.out from this answer. It does the same thing as System.out.println but should work out to be substantially shorter because it's a static call rather than virtual call. – ankh-morpork Aug 28 at 21:14 # JS (Windows Script Host), 25 bytes WSH.Echo("Hello, World!")  I don't know if someone did already post Windows Script Host JS. • Different languages should usually go in separate answers. Especially in challenges like this one which has an automatic leaderboard - only your first language shows up there. – Ørjan Johansen Mar 22 at 1:14 # VBS (Windows Script Host), 26 bytes WScript.Echo "Hello, World!"  ## VTL-2, 21 bytes 1 ?="Hello, World!"  ? is the I/O system variable in VTL-2. Byte count may seem off, but line numbers are always two bytes, and the CR at the end of the line is mandatory and counted. Space between line numbers and commands is also mandatory. ## Keg, 15 bytes Hello\, world\!  Keg pushes all of the unrecognized commands onto the stack (with , and ! escaped). After the program terminates, it prints the content of the stack. • Now I feel bad. – A̲̲ Aug 10 at 7:58 ## Visual Basic Script, 21 Bytes MsgBox"Hello, World!"  vbs is my favorite programming language • Welcome to the site! As this is a very busy question, you should be aware that your answer may not be unique. However, it is just as valid either way. Would it be possible to edit in a link to an online testing site, such as Try it online! so that others can verify your answer? – caird coinheringaahing Aug 29 at 14:50 ## Pxem, 0+17=17 bytes Using the filename as data without counting the length is cheating. Therefore it is 17 bytes. (It even uses the filename extension as part of the program!) Save the program as Hello, World!.pxe  and the file contents should be empty. # Simula (cim), 24 bytes OutText("Hello, World!")  Try it online! Over 750 answers and we can still find languages not yet submitted. Wowsers. # Intcode Since Advent of Code will inevitably be adding more features to Intcode as this year's event progresses, I'll just treat the separate revisions as different languages, and add to this if a new one makes it shorter. ## Day 2, N/A Bytes Having no real way of outputting multiple values yet, the version in day 2 can't do a proper Hello World. There is technically this 42-byte solution, but it feels like cheating because I'm pretty sure no interpreter can run it: 1,3,5,0,99,5735816763073854918203775149089  This program copies that really long number to memory location 0 (which counts as output) and then halts. The really long number happens to be Hello, World! when read in bigendian form as a string. ## Day 5, 89 Bytes In day 5, dedicated I/O instructions are added, so a proper Hello World is possible. The ability to use immediate values doesn't hurt either. 104,72,104,101,104,108,4,5,104,111,104,44,104,32,104,87,4,9,104,114,4,5,104,100,104,33,99  # CRPL and its sister language PRPL, 21 bytes Bit of an obscure language, but the official tutorial doesn't contain a Hello World program so this at least is worth something. "Hello, World!" Trace  "Hello, World!" pushes the string Hello, World! to the stack, and Trace pops an item from the stack and add it to the trace log, the closest thing the language has to SDTOUT or a console. Alas, for this language is too obscure for Dennis's gadget; however, I have written the following interpreter in JS with all the complexity needed for this demo. I may one day make it support more. var code = '"Hello, world!" Trace'; var stack = []; var vars = Object.create(null); var literals = []; code = code.replace(/"(.*?)"/g, (m,$1) => 'lit' + [literals.length, literals.push($1)][0]).split(/\s/); for (var token of code) { if (token.match(/^lit(\d+)$/)) {
stack.push(literals[token.slice(3)]);
} else if (token.match(/^-?\d+.?\d*/)) {
stack.push(+token);
} else if (token.startsWith('<-')) {
stack.push(vars[token.slice(2)]);
} else if (token.startsWith('->')) {
vars['v' + token.slice(2)] = stack.pop();
} else {
switch(token) {
case 'Trace5':
console.log(stack.pop());
case 'Trace4':
console.log(stack.pop());
case 'Trace3':
console.log(stack.pop());
case 'Trace2':
console.log(stack.pop());
case 'Trace':
console.log(stack.pop());
break;
default:
throw new Error(token + 'is not implemented.');
}
}
}

• No language is too obscure, you just have to ask for it on talk.tryitonline.net lol – ASCII-only Apr 11 '18 at 6:34
• Yeah probably. You could've just edited it yourself. – Nissa 2 days ago

# Groovy, 20 bytes

print"Hello, World!"


## rs, 14 bytes

/Hello, World!


Replaces the empty string with "Hello, World!"

## Axo, 29 bytes

"!dlroW, o%
\%#[<"Hell<
>( ^


Please let me know if this can be golfed further.

• Another 29 byte solution: "!dlroW ,olleH"(((((((((((((\ – MilkyWay90 Feb 6 at 3:42
• You may want to consider putting in a TIO link to make it more accessible for others to test it – MilkyWay90 Apr 21 at 22:50

## WARP, 16 bytes

)"Hello, World!"


) is the standard output mechanism.

## ACIDIC, 16 bytes

Hello, World!
+*


Prints the entire storage stack, which is filled with Hello, World!.

## [], 20 bytes

(({<[Hello, World!})


Don't ask me how this works.

• How does this work? – NieDzejkob Apr 29 '17 at 17:41
• @NieDzejkob Good question! – LegionMammal978 Apr 29 '17 at 17:43
• Here is some documentation on how this works. It works because (({<x) prints the value of x. What remains is to convert "Hello, World!" into something printable by putting it in the declareDataX function [x} like [Hello, World!}. Therefore the program is (({<[Hello, World!}). At least I think that is how it works. – NK1406 Dec 15 '18 at 20:10

## Ans, 16 bytes

$"Hello, World!"  $ is the standard output mechanism.

## J--, 28 bytes

main{echo("Hello, World!");}


main is replaced with public static void main(String[]a), echo is replaced with System.out.println, and the entire program is put in a class.