409
\$\begingroup\$

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

The Rules

  • Each submission must be a full program.
  • The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
  • The program must not write anything to STDERR.
  • If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

    Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

  • Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
  • This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
  • If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

To make sure that your answer shows up, please start your answer with a headline, using the following Markdown template:

## Language Name, N bytes

where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes

If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes

You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes

/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var ANSWER_FILTER = "!t)IWYnsLAZle2tQ3KqrVveCRJfxcRLe";
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

var answers = [], answers_hash, answer_ids, answer_page = 1, more_answers = true, comment_page;

function answersUrl(index) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

function commentUrl(index, answers) {
  return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/answers/" + answers.join(';') + "/comments?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + COMMENT_FILTER;
}

function getAnswers() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: answersUrl(answer_page++),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      answers.push.apply(answers, data.items);
      answers_hash = [];
      answer_ids = [];
      data.items.forEach(function(a) {
        a.comments = [];
        var id = +a.share_link.match(/\d+/);
        answer_ids.push(id);
        answers_hash[id] = a;
      });
      if (!data.has_more) more_answers = false;
      comment_page = 1;
      getComments();
    }
  });
}

function getComments() {
  jQuery.ajax({
    url: commentUrl(comment_page++, answer_ids),
    method: "get",
    dataType: "jsonp",
    crossDomain: true,
    success: function (data) {
      data.items.forEach(function(c) {
        if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
          answers_hash[c.post_id].comments.push(c);
      });
      if (data.has_more) getComments();
      else if (more_answers) getAnswers();
      else process();
    }
  });  
}

getAnswers();

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

var OVERRIDE_REG = /^Override\s*header:\s*/i;

function getAuthorName(a) {
  return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
  var valid = [];
  
  answers.forEach(function(a) {
    var body = a.body;
    a.comments.forEach(function(c) {
      if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
        body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
    });
    
    var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
    if (match)
      valid.push({
        user: getAuthorName(a),
        size: +match[2],
        language: match[1],
        link: a.share_link,
      });
    else console.log(body);
  });
  
  valid.sort(function (a, b) {
    var aB = a.size,
        bB = b.size;
    return aB - bB
  });

  var languages = {};
  var place = 1;
  var lastSize = null;
  var lastPlace = 1;
  valid.forEach(function (a) {
    if (a.size != lastSize)
      lastPlace = place;
    lastSize = a.size;
    ++place;
    
    var answer = jQuery("#answer-template").html();
    answer = answer.replace("{{PLACE}}", lastPlace + ".")
                   .replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
                   .replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
                   .replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)
                   .replace("{{LINK}}", a.link);
    answer = jQuery(answer);
    jQuery("#answers").append(answer);

    var lang = a.language;
    lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();
    
    languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
  });

  var langs = [];
  for (var lang in languages)
    if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
      langs.push(languages[lang]);

  langs.sort(function (a, b) {
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
    if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
    return 0;
  });

  for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
  {
    var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
    var lang = langs[i];
    language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
                       .replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
                       .replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
                       .replace("{{LINK}}", lang.link);
    language = jQuery(language);
    jQuery("#languages").append(language);
  }

}
body {
  text-align: left !important;
  display: block !important;
}

#answer-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 290px;
  float: left;
}

#language-list {
  padding: 10px;
  width: 500px;
  float: left;
}

table thead {
  font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
  padding: 5px;
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="https://cdn.sstatic.net/Sites/codegolf/all.css?v=ffb5d0584c5f">
<div id="language-list">
  <h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
  <table class="language-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="languages">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<div id="answer-list">
  <h2>Leaderboard</h2>
  <table class="answer-list">
    <thead>
      <tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody id="answers">

    </tbody>
  </table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="answer-template">
    <tr><td>{{PLACE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
  <tbody id="language-template">
    <tr><td>{{LANGUAGE}}</td><td>{{NAME}}</td><td>{{SIZE}}</td><td><a href="{{LINK}}">Link</a></td></tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Must the language meet our usual requirements for what a programming language is, or are we operating by kolmogorov complexity rules? \$\endgroup\$ – isaacg Aug 28 '15 at 13:54
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? \$\endgroup\$ – aditsu Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
  • 7
    \$\begingroup\$ @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01

748 Answers 748

3
\$\begingroup\$

Atari Logo, 21 bytes

Code:

PRINT [HELLO, WORLD!]

Result:

enter image description here

\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

Dodos, 167 164 160 159 bytes

	* 2
	1 0 4
	L
	L
	1 *
	4 3 1
	2 1 1
	2 2 3
	1 *
	4 *
	L
	+ 0 0 4
	3 1 1
L
	3 1 4
*
	2 4
+
	dot
i
	+ j
j
	
	dip + dab
0
	
	
	
	
	
1
	i + 0
2
	i 1
3
	i 2
4
	i 3

@Thanks to @Leo for golfing off 1 byte!

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

x86/x86_64 on Linux, 34 32 31 bytes

00:      e8 0d 00 00 00          call   <+0x12>
05:      48 65 6c 6c 6f 2c 20 57 6f 72 6c 64 21
                                 "Hello, World!"
12:      59                      pop    %ecx
13:      6a 01                   push   $0x1
15:      5b                      pop    %ebx
16:      6a 0d                   push   $0xd
18:      5a                      pop    %edx
19:      6a 04                   push   $0x4
1b:      58                      pop    %eax
1c:      cd 80                   int    $0x80
1e:      c3                      ret

Main differences between this one and grc's version: mine makes no assumption of prior register contents, works in both x86 and x86_64 modes and does a ret in lieu of a sys_exit() syscall.

If you want to Try it online!, compile and run the following C program.

const char main[]="\xe8\r\0\0\0Hello, World!Yj\1[j\rZj\4X\xcd\x80\xc3";

Note that Windows Services for Linux currently doesn't seem to support this type of syscall.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ The difference is that yours is a function, @grc's is code that only works from _start in a static executable (where Linux does give you zeroed registers), and runs sys_exit when it's done. (And BTW, this won't work in 64-bit PIE executables (so your sample caller fails on many recent Linux distros where gcc -pie is the default, or any other context where the code is outside the low 32 bits. int 0x80 truncates pointers to 32 bits) \$\endgroup\$ – Peter Cordes Apr 13 '18 at 4:31
  • \$\begingroup\$ If you make position-dependent code, you could use mov $msg, %ecx (5 bytes) instead of call/pop. Put msg after the ret in your function. You can also save instructions (but not code size) by using lea 3(%ebx), %eax (3 bytes) instead of push/pop, after getting a known value of ebx=1. (Still portable between ia32 and x86-64 with the same machine code, because lea 3(%rbx),%eax is safe. Tips for golfing in x86/x64 machine code). Other than position-dependent mov r32, imm32, I don't see a way to make this shorter. \$\endgroup\$ – Peter Cordes Apr 13 '18 at 4:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ Here's a 30-byte version godbolt.org/g/xAcGMg (position-dependent, and avoiding push/pop in favour of xor-zero/inc and LEA). Note that as a function, it clobbers EBX, thus violating the standard calling convention. That's fine for asm functions, though, but maybe something to mention when you're showing how to use it as a C main. The CRT code that calls main doesn't actually break if main clobbers EBX on my system, last I checked, but it could. \$\endgroup\$ – Peter Cordes Apr 13 '18 at 4:46
  • \$\begingroup\$ *window subsystem for linux \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Apr 17 '18 at 11:10
3
\$\begingroup\$

Brainfuck, 128 bytes

Generated using this generator, which is sub-optimal.

-[------->+<]>-.-[->+++++<]>++.+++++++..+++.[->+++++<]>+.------------.---[->+++<]>.-[--->+<]>---.+++.------.--------.-[--->+<]>.
\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

Aubergine, 29 bytes

-a1=oA-a1:bA=iB\0!dlroW ,olleH

Where \0 is a null byte

Try it online!

Explanation

-a1                             Decrement a (now points to H)
   =oA                          Output *a (loop starts here)
      -a1                       Decrement a
         :bA                    If *a is not 0 (we're not at null byte), jump to b (which is 0). IP then moves by 3, so IP starts at 3 next tick
            =iB                 Else move IP to *b, which is the character code of `-`, moving us out of bounds and ending execution without error.
               \0!dlroW ,olleH
\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

Meq, 145 111 bytes

.==++>:+>+>[:++++++++>]:=+>====++++>===++>.===+++++++>:=+>:=++++>:++++++++>:>===+++rp>p>>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p!

Thanks Steadybox for saving 34 bytes

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! As far as I can tell, this is just the HW from the esolangs page (which seems to print Hello World) with two characters dropped. Does this actually print the correct punctuation of Hello, World!? \$\endgroup\$ – Martin Ender Mar 16 '18 at 9:41
  • \$\begingroup\$ @MartinEnder It does not, it prints Helo World. (And the original prints Hello World.) \$\endgroup\$ – Ørjan Johansen Mar 16 '18 at 9:56
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ .==++>:+>+>[:++++++++>]:=+>====++++>===++>.===+++++++>:=+>:=++++>:++++++++>:>===+++rp>p>>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p>p! should work. \$\endgroup\$ – Steadybox Mar 16 '18 at 10:37
3
\$\begingroup\$

Rockstar, 21 bytes

Shout "Hello, World!"

Yeah, kinda boring... oh well.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 4
    \$\begingroup\$ You can save 2 bytes by using Say instead of Shout. \$\endgroup\$ – RamenChef Sep 27 '18 at 13:58
3
\$\begingroup\$

Pikachu, 1562 bytes

So simple even Pikachu can do it!

pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika
pi pika pikachu
pi pika pika pikachu
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pika pi
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pika pi
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pika pi
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pika pi
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pi pika pi pi pikachu
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pi pika pi pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pikachu pi pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pika pi
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pi pika
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pika pikachu
pika pi
pi pi pika pi pikachu
pi pika
pi pikachu pi pikachu
pika pi
pi pika pi pikachu
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu

Try it at Trove42! (Copy and paste above text)

Commented

# H
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu         # push 9 to `pi` stack 
pi pika                                             # copy top of `pi` stack, 9, to `pika` stack
pi pika pikachu                                     # push 1 to `pika` stack 
pi pika pika pikachu                                # add top two elements of `pika` stack
                                                    # push result, 10, to `pika` stack 
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu            # push 9 to `pi` stack 
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 72, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 72, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'H', and print

# e                                                 
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pi pikachu                                       # push 1 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 101, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 101, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'e', and print

# l
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu            # push 8 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 108, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 108, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'l', and print

# l
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu            # push 8 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 108, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 108, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'l', and print

# o
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pika pi pikachu # push 11 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 101, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 111, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'o', and print

# "," (comma)
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pi pikachu                            # push 4 to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 40, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pi pikachu                            # push 4 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 44, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 44, 
                                                    # to ASCII, ',', and print

# " " (space)
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pikachu                               # push 3 to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 40, to `pi` stack
pikachu pi pi pikachu                               # push 2 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 32, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 32, 
                                                    # to ASCII, ' ', and print

# W
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu            # push 8 to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 80, to `pi` stack
pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu               # push 7 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 87, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 87, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'W', and print

# o
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 100, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pi` stack, 100, to `pika` stack
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu # push 11 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 111, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 101, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'o', and print

# r
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu  # push 14 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 114, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 114, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'r', and print

# l
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 100, to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pi pika pi pi pika pi pikachu            # push 8 to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 101, to `pi` stack 
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 101, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'e', and print

# d
pikachu pikachu pika pikachu                        # convert top of `pika` stack, 100, 
                                                    # to ASCII, 'd', and print

# "!" (exclaimation point)
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 10, to `pi` stack
pi pi pika pi pikachu                               # push 3 to `pi` stack
pi pika                                             # copy top of `pi` stack, 3, to `pika` stack
pi pikachu pi pikachu                               # multiply top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 30, to `pi` stack
pika pi                                             # copy top of `pika` stack, 3, to `pi` stack
pi pika pi pikachu                                  # add top two elements of `pi` stack
                                                    # push result, 33, to `pi` stack
pikachu pikachu pi pikachu                          # convert top of `pi` stack, 33, 
                                                    # to ASCII, '!', and print
\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

A Pear Tree, 25 bytes

print'Hello, World!'#»G²Ú

Try it online!

A Pear Tree programs are written in an arbitrary ASCII-consistent 8-bit character set; for codepoint 128 and above, the interpreter cares about the codepoint numerically, not the represented character. TIO uses Latin-1, so the above program is actually a Latin-1 decoding of the codepoints that make it up.

Explanation

print'Hello, World!' should be fairly self-explanatory. However, there is some choice available here; print"Hello, World!" would have been the same length, but leads to the resulting checksum being less printable.

The checksum is the interesting part of the program. In this program, that's the #»G²Ú at the end. For golfing, you'd want the shortest workable checksum, which is normally 4 or 5 bytes long. (It's a 32-bit checksum, so 4 bytes would normally be enough, but the checksum is also executed as code, and thus needs to be a valid command; the # starts a comment, so # plus 4 bytes is normally enough to add a checksum to anything.) The checksum doesn't have to cover the whole code, but does have to cover a prefix of the part of the code that actually runs; adding comments at the end is terser than adding them at the start, and we want to execute the entire program, so for this program, I caused the checksum to cover the entire program.

Although a Hello World program doesn't benefit much from the checksumming, we could have made use of the checksum behaviour to embed the Hello World program into a larger document or write multiple copies of the program so that if one gets corrupted, the others can still run. This makes A Pear Tree considerably more robust than most languages are.

\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

]=[, 164 bytes

[=======[==]]=[[=[[=]]=[[=[[========]]][]=[]=[[=[=[=]]][]=[[====[====]]=[[===[==]]=[[========[=======]]=[]=[[=[=[====]]=[[=[[========]]=[[=[[]]=[[===[===]]=[[=[]]=[

]=[ was a language which only uses the symbols ], =, and [.

The ]=[ interpreter is written in 12-Basic.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ There's something amusing about the fact that the ]=[ interpreter at the link is written in the 12-basic interpreter. \$\endgroup\$ – snail_ May 31 '18 at 20:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ Permalink no longer works \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Dec 26 '18 at 1:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ now I can't find the interpreter... \$\endgroup\$ – 12Me21 Dec 28 '18 at 3:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ I was looking through some old files and I found the interpreter, finally. \$\endgroup\$ – 12Me21 Mar 13 at 21:32
3
\$\begingroup\$

legit, 1 commit, 67 bytes (commit messages), 179 + 3 = 182 bytes (repository)

Commit tree:

* 63c5d78 "!dlroW ,olleH" put put put put put put put put put put put put put

The program is quite boring -- commits are expensive, and the messages are compressed, so there's little incentive to use proper control flow.

The program in its proper representation consists of 4 files:

.git/HEAD (21 bytes, an empty file here is still accepted by the interpreter, but git does not recognize the repository):

ref:refs/heads/master

.git/refs/heads/master (40 bytes):

63c5d7873f5b0ede65885bfdfd5c935827d6752a

.git/objects/4b/825dc642cb6eb9a060e54bf8d69288fbee4904 (15 bytes, xxd):

00000000: 78da 2b29 4a4d 5530 6000 000a 2c02 01    x.+)JMU0`...,..

.git/objects/63/c5d7873f5b0ede65885bfdfd5c935827d6752a (103 bytes, xxd):

00000000: 78da 04c1 4501 c030 0c00 c0bd a722 0e4a  x...E..0.....".J
00000010: 4137 6366 f0df bbf6 dcf7 f983 80a1 f89e  A7cf............
00000020: be07 6c34 52d7 32c6 b6e1 beb1 dab3 ef09  ..l4R.2.........
00000030: 9b41 3bb6 a83a 347d 8fe6 b1ac ff6f 3a1f  .A;..:4}.....o:.
00000040: f090 6763 c705 31a4 2415 cae5 5252 4cc9  ..gc..1.$...RRL.
00000050: 29ca 0f57 d0c9 cfc9 49f5 5052 2828 2d21  )..W....I.PR((-!
00000060: 1503 00bd ca30 75                        .....0u
\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ hmm seems like you should measure repository size using a tar instead? \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only May 4 at 1:01
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ASCII-only Is there precedent for this? Also, tar on my machine always creates at least 10240-byte files minimum, which removes almost all possibilities for golfing. Moreover, the filenames literally can't store any extra information - they are hashes of the content (after decompressing with zlib). \$\endgroup\$ – NieDzejkob May 4 at 7:59
  • \$\begingroup\$ hmm. well the structure needs to be counted somehow. maybe some kind of tar archive instead? \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only May 4 at 10:04
  • \$\begingroup\$ @ASCII-only I've found the relevant meta post for multi-file programs and linked it in the header of my answer. Can you take a look? \$\endgroup\$ – NieDzejkob May 4 at 10:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ Looks fine now, but still feel like that's a bit hacky (e.g. it's impossible to make it work with 1-byte filenames) :/ IMO the best way to do this would be to count the bytes of a shell script to create the appropriate structure \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only May 4 at 10:10
3
\$\begingroup\$

32 bit SPARC machine language on SunOS, 48 45 bytes

0x00:  40 00 00 02    call 0x8            ! PC relative jump, return addr to %o7
0x04:  82 10 20 04    mov  4, %g1         ! delay slot; select write() syscall
0x08:  90 10 20 01    mov  1, %o0         ! stdout is fd=1
0x0c:  92 03 E0 20    add  %o7, 32, %o1   ! put addr of string in %o1
0x10:  94 10 20 0d    mov  13, %o2        ! length of string
0x14:  91 D0 20 08    ta   %icc, %g0 + 8  ! call write()
0x18:  82 10 20 01    mov  1, %g1         ! select exit() syscall
0x1c:  91 D0 20 08    ta   %icc, %g0 + 8  ! call exit()
0x20:  48 65 6c 6c    "Hello, World!"
       6f 2c 20 57
       6f 72 6c 64
       21

Porting to 64 bit SPARC requires changing the argument of the trap instruction from 8 to 64.

To try this on a SunOS machine, compile and run the following C program.

const char main[]="\x40\x00\x00\x02\x82\x10\x20\x04\x90\x10\x20\x01\x92\x03\xe0\x20\x94\x10\x20\x0d\x91\xd0\x20\x08\x82\x10\x20\x01\x91\xd0\x20\x08Hello, World!";
\$\endgroup\$
3
\$\begingroup\$

VBA, 15

?"Hello, World!

Try it, for instance, in the "Immediate" panel of the development window in MS Excel.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ I see. I'll try Brandy \$\endgroup\$ – Beta Decay Aug 28 '15 at 15:01
  • \$\begingroup\$ Nope, returns with "Type mismatch: number wanted" \$\endgroup\$ – Beta Decay Aug 28 '15 at 15:01
  • \$\begingroup\$ @BetaDecay I can post a screenshot if you like \$\endgroup\$ – Jerry Jeremiah Aug 30 '15 at 23:05
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @edc65 This still works (least in my VBA7 version) if you remove the trailing quote saving you 1 byte: ?"Hello, World! \$\endgroup\$ – i_saw_drones May 7 at 21:21
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ @i_saw_drones amazing! VBA is really forgiving (or really a mess). Thanks for the hint \$\endgroup\$ – edc65 May 8 at 14:15
3
\$\begingroup\$

C++ (gcc), 40 bytes

main(){__builtin_puts("Hello, World!");}

Try it online!

Using builtins are shorter since #include takes up a lot of bytes. I believe this solution is optimal.

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Common LISP, 22 bytes

(princ"Hello, World!")
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Burlesque, 17 bytes

,"Hello, World!"Q

The leading , tells Burlesque to ignore standard input. "Hello, World!" pushes a string to the stack, and Q formats it for display without quotes.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Yes, otherwise Burlesque will add "". \$\endgroup\$ – Lynn Oct 23 '15 at 21:25
  • \$\begingroup\$ Sure, that works just as well! The , primitive (it's sort of like a flag, I guess?) is there for historic reasons; Q is a new-ish synonym for sh which was longer. \$\endgroup\$ – Lynn Oct 23 '15 at 21:46
2
\$\begingroup\$

RPython, 60 bytes

def e():print'Hello, World!';return 0
target=lambda*_:e,None
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Erlang, 63 bytes

Save as h.erl, then compile with erl -s h m, I think.

-module h.
-export[m/0].
m()->io:fwrite("Hello, World!").
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Glypho, 480 bytes

In the "shorthand" format, it's 120 bytes:

1d+d1+d*+ddd++ddd++1+d11+d*d++d11+1+d++d1-dd+++d1<d>+-d++11+d*d*d+<d>d+d+d<d>+d+1+d1-dd+++d1-<d>+d*1+11+1+d+d*d+<d-+>[o]

An example conversion to "true" Glypho (using the translation of the Java interpreter, which differs slightly from that documented in the esolangs.org page) is:

v># #  :: < <   <v#  #*>*> ##:#**#,<,<: : > > *  *v>>v # ##,#, + +:++: ++ ##
*<<*,^,^<<#v<<v#v::v< < <,, +,+,+>>+*,,*+*+*,,*>**^v#  #,,:^#vv#>+>+ << >  >, , ++*>:
:v<v<^#^#v::v>::>v**v # #::>^>+>>:>:>>>*>>##>*^ *# #  vv ,::,<<>:++
*vv*v:v:^vv< > > ,,>>:>: << >+>>^ ^ ^^*^+,+,#::#*:*::  :v v  ,   # #<<#<#**#^,^,+##+**
+**+,:,:::>*<^v< v v+^+^*^^*+<<++##+v#v#++<>:< :* **+ +   ^ *  *<+<+<  *vv+<:^^:::
^+*<<***<^+  ++:+:^##^:>:>+::< > >#>># *  >,>, :^ ^>>^##<#,<,*^   *<:<

(using Windows line terminators \r\n) where I tried to disguise it as a 2D language for the Programming Language Quiz.

The basic approach is to push onto the stack a 0 followed by the codepoints in reverse order, and then print them with the loop [o]. In order to golf the pushing, I first push 11 and then I can push a new 11 whenever I want with <d>; the final <d-+> replaces that 11 on the bottom of the stack with the desired 0.

I experimented with various values on the bottom of the stack, and 11 is the only one for which my brute-force searcher was able to find expressions for each of the characters which were no more than 11 bytes each. (12 bytes was taking too long).

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ Quick translation from my CSL answer (i.e. super suboptimal), 456 \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Apr 13 '18 at 6:32
2
\$\begingroup\$

23, 52 bytes

17,13,72,101,108,108,111,44,32,87,111,114,108,100,33

This uses 23.dezsy notation: 17,13 prints the 13 integers that follow as characters.

Try it online here. (Don't forget to replace the example with the above source code.)

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Maxima, 23 bytes

print("Hello, World!")$
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

UNBABTIZED

:72.:101.:108.:108.:111.:44.:32.:87.:111.:114.:108.:100.:33

:x prints x as a character and . acts as a statement separator.

The official interpreter is written for Python 2.2. You can use it in modern versions of Python by prepending the line

# coding: latin1
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

az, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!".
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Cardinal, 15 bytes

%"Hello, World!
\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

LMNtal, 35 bytes

io.use.io.print("Hello, World!",_).

A weird programming language from Japan that seems to be inspired by Prolog.

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Fishing, 37 bytes

v+CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
  `Hello, World!`N

I don't think there's anything to golf beyond the example listed on the esolangs page, so I didn't really write this myself. Hence, community wiki.

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

HPPPL, 44 43 bytes

HP Prime Programming Language for the HP Prime color graphing calculator.

export h()begin print("Hello, World!");end;

(golfed down by one byte, thanks to kirbyfan64sos!)

Output:

Hello, World! HPPPL

This is a full program that you call by entering h to start it.

If you just want to have the output to the terminal, then a shorter (22 bytes) version in Home Mode works, too:

print("Hello, World!")

A free emulator is available here: http://www.hp-prime.de/en/category/13-emulator

\$\endgroup\$
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Is the space between the right parenthesis and begin needed? \$\endgroup\$ – kirbyfan64sos Sep 1 '15 at 13:55
  • \$\begingroup\$ @kirbyfan64sos Thanks for the hint. No, it’s not necessary. \$\endgroup\$ – M L Sep 1 '15 at 14:30
2
\$\begingroup\$

RUBE, 47 bytes

A cellular automaton-based language about warehouses, crates, dozers, and conveyor belts:

2
1
766
2c4
256
07f
662
cfc
466
85c
OOO
ccc
===

It turns out stacking all the crates on top of each other like 2\n1\n6\n... is also 57 bytes, and is "simpler", but I didn't want to stretch the page. :)

Update: stacking the crates into a rectangle is shorter! Who'd've thought?

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Jasmin, 251 bytes

Jasmin is an assembler for the Java Virtual Machine. It takes ASCII descriptions of Java classes, written in a simple assembler-like syntax using the Java Virtual Machine instruction set. It converts them into binary Java class files, suitable for loading by a Java runtime system.

.class H
.super java/lang/Object
.method public static main([Ljava/lang/String;)V
.limit stack 2
getstatic java/lang/System/out Ljava/io/PrintStream;
ldc "Hello, World!"
invokevirtual java/io/PrintStream/println(Ljava/lang/String;)V
return
.end method

This program is based off the "Hello, World!" program by SJSU. Golfing mainly entailed removing comments and unnecessary white space. Something interesting I noted while golfing it is that a class file doesn't have to include a constructor. When a normal Java program doesn't have a constructor, a default is provided but. When there is no constructor in Jasmin, the resulting class file doesn't have one either. This would probably result in issues when trying to instantiate the class but, for the purpose of executing the main method, it works fine.

\$\endgroup\$
2
\$\begingroup\$

Doorspace, 92 bytes

The language is also known as Qugord.

~group h from %2 to %14 affect h into "Hello, World!" each h into 0 task give 0 to 1 publish

or

~group h from 0 to %12 affect h into "Hello, World!" each h into 0 task give 0 to %0 publish

It's seriously bugging me that this has a horizontal scrollbar because of a single character. I don't see how to shorten it any further though.

This solution is mostly a golfed version of the "Hello, World!" example on the esolangs page. The important concepts of the language are that it operates on an infinite main array, initialised to zeroes; and then there's also an output array, which is reset every time you print its contents. If you know what the commands mean, the code is actually quite readable if split across several lines (which is not valid in the language):

group h from %2 to %14 
affect h into "Hello, World!" 
each h into 0 task 
  give 0 to 1 
  publish

The first line defines a "group tag" h, which is some subarray of the main array. In this case, it addresses the cells at indices 2 to 14 (leaving 2 cells for future use).

The second line writes the character codes of Hello, World! into these 13 cells.

The third line defines a foreach loop over the cells in h, which works by copying the current value into the specified cell (0) and then executing the code after it.

The fourth line is executed once for each character code (which we find in cell 0). It moves the character code from the 0th cell of the main array to the 0th cell of the output array (which we index relatively by looking at index 1 on the main tape, which is zero).

The fifth line prints everything in the output array up to the last non-zero element (i.e. just the first cell in our case).

\$\endgroup\$

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.