# “Hello, World!”

So... uh... this is a bit embarrassing. But we don't have a plain "Hello, World!" challenge yet (despite having 35 variants tagged with , and counting). While this is not the most interesting code golf in the common languages, finding the shortest solution in certain esolangs can be a serious challenge. For instance, to my knowledge it is not known whether the shortest possible Brainfuck solution has been found yet.

Furthermore, while all of Wikipedia (the Wikipedia entry has been deleted but there is a copy at archive.org ), esolangs and Rosetta Code have lists of "Hello, World!" programs, none of these are interested in having the shortest for each language (there is also this GitHub repository). If we want to be a significant site in the code golf community, I think we should try and create the ultimate catalogue of shortest "Hello, World!" programs (similar to how our basic quine challenge contains some of the shortest known quines in various languages). So let's do this!

## The Rules

• Each submission must be a full program.
• The program must take no input, and print Hello, World! to STDOUT (this exact byte stream, including capitalization and punctuation) plus an optional trailing newline, and nothing else.
• The program must not write anything to STDERR.
• If anyone wants to abuse this by creating a language where the empty program prints Hello, World!, then congrats, they just paved the way for a very boring answer.

Note that there must be an interpreter so the submission can be tested. It is allowed (and even encouraged) to write this interpreter yourself for a previously unimplemented language.

• Submissions are scored in bytes, in an appropriate (pre-existing) encoding, usually (but not necessarily) UTF-8. Some languages, like Folders, are a bit tricky to score - if in doubt, please ask on Meta.
• This is not about finding the language with the shortest "Hello, World!" program. This is about finding the shortest "Hello, World!" program in every language. Therefore, I will not mark any answer as "accepted".
• If your language of choice is a trivial variant of another (potentially more popular) language which already has an answer (think BASIC or SQL dialects, Unix shells or trivial Brainfuck-derivatives like Alphuck), consider adding a note to the existing answer that the same or a very similar solution is also the shortest in the other language.

As a side note, please don't downvote boring (but valid) answers in languages where there is not much to golf - these are still useful to this question as it tries to compile a catalogue as complete as possible. However, do primarily upvote answers in languages where the authors actually had to put effort into golfing the code.

For inspiration, check the Hello World Collection.

## The Catalogue

The Stack Snippet at the bottom of this post generates the catalogue from the answers a) as a list of shortest solution per language and b) as an overall leaderboard.

## Language Name, N bytes


where N is the size of your submission. If you improve your score, you can keep old scores in the headline, by striking them through. For instance:

## Ruby, <s>104</s> <s>101</s> 96 bytes


If there you want to include multiple numbers in your header (e.g. because your score is the sum of two files or you want to list interpreter flag penalties separately), make sure that the actual score is the last number in the header:

## Perl, 43 + 2 (-p flag) = 45 bytes


You can also make the language name a link which will then show up in the snippet:

## [><>](https://esolangs.org/wiki/Fish), 121 bytes


/* Configuration */

var QUESTION_ID = 55422; // Obtain this from the url
// It will be like https://XYZ.stackexchange.com/questions/QUESTION_ID/... on any question page
var COMMENT_FILTER = "!)Q2B_A2kjfAiU78X(md6BoYk";
var OVERRIDE_USER = 8478; // This should be the user ID of the challenge author.

/* App */

return "https://api.stackexchange.com/2.2/questions/" +  QUESTION_ID + "/answers?page=" + index + "&pagesize=100&order=desc&sort=creation&site=codegolf&filter=" + ANSWER_FILTER;
}

}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(a) {
});
comment_page = 1;
}
});
}

jQuery.ajax({
method: "get",
dataType: "jsonp",
crossDomain: true,
success: function (data) {
data.items.forEach(function(c) {
if (c.owner.user_id === OVERRIDE_USER)
});
else process();
}
});
}

var SCORE_REG = /<h\d>\s*([^\n,<]*(?:<(?:[^\n>]*>[^\n<]*<\/[^\n>]*>)[^\n,<]*)*),.*?(\d+)(?=[^\n\d<>]*(?:<(?:s>[^\n<>]*<\/s>|[^\n<>]+>)[^\n\d<>]*)*<\/h\d>)/;

function getAuthorName(a) {
return a.owner.display_name;
}

function process() {
var valid = [];

var body = a.body;
if(OVERRIDE_REG.test(c.body))
body = '<h1>' + c.body.replace(OVERRIDE_REG, '') + '</h1>';
});

var match = body.match(SCORE_REG);
if (match)
valid.push({
user: getAuthorName(a),
size: +match[2],
language: match[1],
});
else console.log(body);
});

valid.sort(function (a, b) {
var aB = a.size,
bB = b.size;
return aB - bB
});

var languages = {};
var place = 1;
var lastSize = null;
var lastPlace = 1;
valid.forEach(function (a) {
if (a.size != lastSize)
lastPlace = place;
lastSize = a.size;
++place;

.replace("{{NAME}}", a.user)
.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", a.language)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", a.size)

var lang = a.language;
lang = jQuery('<a>'+lang+'</a>').text();

languages[lang] = languages[lang] || {lang: a.language, lang_raw: lang, user: a.user, size: a.size, link: a.link};
});

var langs = [];
for (var lang in languages)
if (languages.hasOwnProperty(lang))
langs.push(languages[lang]);

langs.sort(function (a, b) {
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() > b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return 1;
if (a.lang_raw.toLowerCase() < b.lang_raw.toLowerCase()) return -1;
return 0;
});

for (var i = 0; i < langs.length; ++i)
{
var language = jQuery("#language-template").html();
var lang = langs[i];
language = language.replace("{{LANGUAGE}}", lang.lang)
.replace("{{NAME}}", lang.user)
.replace("{{SIZE}}", lang.size)
language = jQuery(language);
jQuery("#languages").append(language);
}

}
body {
text-align: left !important;
display: block !important;
}

width: 290px;
float: left;
}

#language-list {
width: 500px;
float: left;
}

font-weight: bold;
}

table td {
}
<script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/2.1.1/jquery.min.js"></script>
<div id="language-list">
<h2>Shortest Solution by Language</h2>
<table class="language-list">
<tr><td>Language</td><td>User</td><td>Score</td></tr>
<tbody id="languages">

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<tr><td></td><td>Author</td><td>Language</td><td>Size</td></tr>

</tbody>
</table>
</div>
<table style="display: none">
</tbody>
</table>
<table style="display: none">
<tbody id="language-template">
</tbody>
</table>

• @isaacg No it doesn't. I think there would be some interesting languages where it's not obvious whether primality testing is possible. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 13:56
• If the same program, such as "Hello, World!", is the shortest in many different and unrelated languages, should it be posted separately? – aditsu quit because SE is EVIL Aug 28 '15 at 15:33
• @mbomb007 Well it's hidden by default because the three code blocks take up a lot of space. I could minify them so that they are a single line each, but I'd rather keep the code maintainable in case bugs come up. – Martin Ender Aug 28 '15 at 19:34
• @ETHproductions "Unlike our usual rules, feel free to use a language (or language version) even if it's newer than this challenge." Publishing the language and an implementation before posting it would definitely be helpful though. – Martin Ender Aug 29 '15 at 23:01
• @MartinEnder ... Almost. If two BF solutions have the same size, the one with smaller lexicographical order will take smaller number of bytes in Unary. Of course the smallest Unary solution translated to BF is guaranteed to be smallest. – user202729 May 20 '18 at 10:20

# Gammaplex, 22 bytes

X"Hello World!"XXSXrRE


• Don't use XS. Just reverse it yourself. – jimmy23013 Jan 2 '17 at 22:06

# Somme, 38 bytes

8s+vi:7+::J:^B4*25p9s6+v:J:6-:8-25pim,


Somme is kind of a complicated language. Some of the finer details are irrelevant, so I'll give you what you need to know.

1. Somme is stack-based.
2. The numbers 0-9 push that number, along with A-F pushing 10-15.
3. The above are treated as 0-arity functions.
4. When a 0-arity function is invoked, the default pop for the stack is set to the result. So, 8s+ first pushes 8, squares 8, then adds 8 to it. This is 72, orH.
5. m, prints the stack as characters.

I'll add some more explanation later.

## C (works with gcc/linux/x86_64), 129 bytes

Not my original idea, just changed a couple of bytes and golfed a little:

const main[]={-443987883,440,113408,-1922629632,4149,965120,84869120,15544,266023168,1818576901,539783020,1819438935,-1878384284};

• Seg fault on my system. – MD XF Mar 6 '17 at 22:56
• Works on Ubuntiu 16.04.04 using gcc 5.4.0 – G B Mar 7 '17 at 7:13

## QBIC, 3 bytes

?_H


QBIC has a built-in specifically for this purpose, it was kind of a test to see how this sort of function-calls would look in QBIC source and how the QBasic interpreter would need to handle this. For those who frown upon built-ins:

?@Hello, World!


15 bytes, still not bad. QBIC needs string literals to be closed by a $$$$ (backtick), and auto-closes literals at End-Of-File.

# Minkolang v.0.9, 18 bytes

"Hello, World!"$O.  Try it online! The v.0.1 answer seems to no longer, so it makes sense to post an answer in the most recent version. "Hello, World!"$O.
"Hello, World!"     Push these chars to the stack
$O output all these characters . terminate the program  # 8th, 16 17 bytes "Hello, World!" .  Push the string on TOS. Then print the item on stack with . • With version 17.01 of 8th a bug has been fixed. Therefore a space before . is strictly required. – Chaos Manor Feb 6 '17 at 19:35 # SQLite, 22 bytes select"Hello, World!";  Try it online! # Changeling, 90 bytes "IpQ:AQ.. ""2(-znK] "" "Tr4r[ "")$dNcA.
"" #!&...
.........
.........
.........
.........



Try it online!

### Background

Changeling is a particularly cumbersome encoding of ShapeScript, designed to make it more difficult to program in and forcing certain geometric shape upon the source code. Both were designed for Create a programming language that only appears to be unusable. I got a little nostalgic when TIO surpassed 200 languages, so since ShapeScript was the very first language on TIO, I decided to add Changeling as the 201st.

All Changeling programs have to form a square of printable ASCII characters. Each line of that square independently creates a bit of ShapeScript code, and the concatenation of these code snippets are evaluated as a ShapeScript program.

Each line begins with an accumulator of 0. For each character c of the line (including the trailing linefeed), the code point of c is XORed with the accumulator divided by 2, and the Unicode character that corresponds to the resulting code point is appended to the source code. Then, the difference between the code point of c and the integer 32 is added to the accumulator, and the next character of the line (if any) is processed.

The resulting program must contain only valid ShapeScript statements or it will not run at all. Exceptions are caught and error messages are replaced with cryptic complaints.

### How it works (WIP)

The standard Hello World program in ShapeScript is simply

"Hello, World!"


However, no Changeling program can encode this exact program.

Since the accumulator is initially 0 on each line, modeling the characters at the beginning of each line into something useful is comparatively easy. The remainder of the line can be enclosed in a string (which is later popped) to avoid syntax errors in the resulting ShapeScript code.

"Hell""
"#0#"o,""
"#" Wor""
"#+"ld""
"#"!""


can be generated by

"IpQ:AQ
""2(-znK]
"" "Tr4r[
"")$dNcA "" #!&  which, by itself, is not a valid Changeling program yet, as its source code is not a square. That's easily fixed by adding characters though, but some care has to be taken not to end the strings started by each trailing " in the ShapeScript program. # JSFuck, 22948 bytes 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 • Welcome to PPCG! All answers on code-golf questions such as this one must include their length in their header; I've edited this in for you. – ETHproductions Feb 25 '17 at 20:44 # Crayon, 16 bytes "Hello, World!"q  Try it online! Crayon is a stack-based golfing language designed to be good at ASCII-art challenges. Instead of the traditional one-line-at-a-time output format, Crayon writes to a 2D "canvas" of characters, which is sent to STDOUT at the end of the program. The q command writes the top item directly onto the canvas. # Graphic 154 bytes x=72 printa(x) y=101 printa(y) y+7 y+3 x-28 x-12 x+55 + y-6 y-8 x-54 + 1 2 0 0 13 7 8 9 0 3 4 9 5 6 0 0 0 5 10 11 12 9 9 9 9 9 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 9 9 9  There is a trailing newline This language is based off of a directed graph. The first line is the list of nodes, each consisting of a single command. The following n lines are the links between nodes on the graph. ## Explanation The first line initializes the nodes as 0: x=72 1: printa(x) 2: y=101 3: printa(y) 4: y+7 5: y+3 6: x-28 7: x-12 8: x+55 9: + 10:y-6 11:y-8 12:x-54 13:+ The program starts with a direction value of 0 at node 0. x=72 go to node 1 Print character represented by x go to node 2 y=101 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 4 Add 7 to y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 5 Add 3 to y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 6 Subtract 28 from x go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 1 Print character represented by x go to node 7 Subtract 12 from x go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 1 Print character represented by x go to node 8 Add 55 to x go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 1 Print character represented by x go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 5 Add 3 to y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 10 Subtract 6 from y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 11 Subtract 8 from y go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 3 Print character represented by y go to node 12 Subtract 54 from x go to node 9 Increment direction by 1 go to node 1 Print character represented by x go to node 13 End program # √ å ı ¥ ® Ï Ø ¿ , 2 bytes HW H › Push the string "Hello, World!" to the stack W › Output the whole stack as Unicode interpretations  Yes it's that basic... # ASP / VBSCRIPT, 13 bytes Another boring answer! Hello, World!  # ~~~, 2200 bytes ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬¬_~~~~~~~~~~¬~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬~~~¬-¬_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~¬  Yet another brainfuck-esque language. This uses UTF-32 encoding ~ adds one to the value ¬ outputs the value mod 127 - move forward along the tape _ move back along the tape • @ovs "This uses UTF-32 encoding" – Fund Monica's Lawsuit May 2 '17 at 18:17 • This is not a programming language. – Esolanging Fruit May 25 '17 at 4:29 # C++, 54 bytes #include<iostream> main(){std::cout<<"Hello, World!";}  Try Me Online! • #include<cstdlib> main(){puts("Hello, World!");} is shorter and still C++ (newline after include, not space) – NieDzejkob Apr 29 '17 at 17:37 • You can save a byte by removing the space between #include and <iostream>. i.e. #include<iostream> instead of #include <iostream> – Moonchild May 1 '17 at 0:57 • There are so many better ways to do this. – MD XF May 13 '17 at 4:11 ## Standard ML, 20 bytes print"Hello, World!"  This works with Moscow ML by calling mosml hello.sml or with Standard ML of New Jersey and sml hello.sml. In both cases an interactive session is started and Hello, World! is printed. Inside a running session print"Hello, World!"; produces the desired output. The ; is needed to tell the interpreter to evaluate the expression. For a compiled version val _=print"Hello, World!"  works with mosmlc and MLton. Try it online! However, MLton appears to accept interpreter-style programs too, so print"Hello, World!";  works with a trailing ;. Try it online! • Which implementation does this use? MLton appears to require a ;. – Dennis May 13 '17 at 18:22 • @Dennis This works with the Moscow ML interpreter, that is calling mosml hello.sml starts the interactive interpreter and prints Hello, World!. For a compiled version with mosmlc a leading val _= appears to needed. I'll edit the post for clarification. Thanks for adding Standard ML to TIO! – Laikoni May 14 '17 at 8:55 # ;# Interpreter provided by @ETHProductions Read this for a full list of commands. ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;#  • Sorry, not a language :( – Esolanging Fruit Jun 4 '17 at 6:47 • @Challenger5 kolmogorov-complexity challenge. Doesn't have to be – caird coinheringaahing Jun 4 '17 at 11:51 • Oh yeah, that's true. Never mind. – Esolanging Fruit Jun 4 '17 at 15:50 # Packed Pyth, 13 bytes Hexdump: 0000000: 4523 2ecd 9bd6 20af bf96 cc88 40 E#.... .....@  Packed Pyth is Pyth with a 7-bit ASCII encoding. This Pyth program: "Hello, World  Gets packed into this Packed Pyth program: E#.͛� ���̈@  To create the file: $ echo -n '"Hello, World!' > hello.pyth
$py ../pyth/packed-pyth.py -p hello.pyth hello.ppyth  To run it: $ py ../pyth/packed-pyth.py hello.ppyth
Hello, World!

• Probably the best and most ultimate ever golfing language using only printable ASCII and newlines, now packed! – Erik the Outgolfer May 25 '17 at 15:24

# Decimal, 48 bytes

13072069076076079044032087079082076068033010D301


This uses only two commands:

• 13 - push a STRING
• 301 - print from stack to output

On the date of posting, Decimal has another Hello World that's a bit more boring:

Hello,13032301World!


Decimal, also called 09D, is an esoteric stack-based programming language that uses the characters 0 through 9 and D. Any other characters in the source code are simply printed.

But spaces and newlines are ignored, because those often fallthrough from comments and commands, adding the necessity for the 13032301. (I need to update the README.)

# Noether, 16 bytes

"Hello, World!"P


Try it here!

Noether is basically a stack-based, Reverse Polish Notation version of Fourier. Plans for this language include overloaded functions and string functions.

Noether is named after the pioneering mathematician Emmy Noether.

Explanation:

"Hello, World!" - Push the string "Hello, World!" to the stack
P               - Print the item on the top of the stack


# Neim, 16 bytes

(Hello, World!)B


Try here

Made possible thanks to (partial) BigInteger support.

## cQuents, 15 bytes

Hello, World!?0


Try it online!

### Explanation

Hello, World!    Literal "Hello, World!"
?   Mode ? (query)
0  Necessary for interpreter
Because there is no input for query mode, only print literals


## @, 2 bytes

The language is made of a tree of function calls. Each character (with some exceptions) represents a function that may take as many or few arguments as it likes. Arguments are then read from directly after it in the code.

ħ


The ħ builtin returns the string "Hello, World!"

# Aheui, 147 144 bytes

발따밤따빠받나파빠밣다빠밦다빠받타밢밢따밦다밤밣따밦밦따빠밣다파받따빠받다파빠빠밠타밣밢따아멓희


# Ly, 19 18 bytes

"!dlroW ,olleH"[o]


First submission in my new language!

# Positron, 21 bytes

print@"Hello, World!"


Try it online!

Just to get this out there :)

# Emmental, 68 bytes

#0#10#33#100#108#114#111#119#32#44#111#108#108#101#72...............


# Caker, 294 bytes

ωΩθΩθθΩθΩθθθΘΩθθΩθθΩθΩθΩθΘθθΩθΩθθΩθθΘΩθθΩθΩθθΩθθΘΩθθΩθΩθθθθΘθΩθΩθθΩθθΘΩθΩθθθθθΘΩθΩθΩθΩθΩθθθΘθθΩθΩθθθθΘθθθΩθθΩθΩθΘΩθθΩθΩθθΩθθΘΩθθΩθθΩθΩθθΘΩθΩθθθθΩθΘ


Looks like alot of zeros...

# SE, 66 61 bytes

array h is [H e l l o , _space W o r l d !] end
do>with h end


T h i s _space e s o l a n g _space i s _space b a d _space a t _space o u t p u t ! (This esolang is bad at output!)

SE stands for self-explanitory, not Stack Exchange :(.

# Joy, 24 bytes

"Hello, World!"putchars.
`
• You forgot the exclamation mark! – kirbyfan64sos Nov 21 '15 at 4:36