26
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This is a code golf challenge. Just like the title says, write a program to covert a string of ascii characters into binary.

For example:

"Hello World!" should turn into 1001000 1100101 1101100 1101100 1101111 100000 1010111 1101111 1110010 1101100 1100100 100001.

Note: I am particularly interested in a pyth implementation.

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9
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ We had the reversed asked: codegolf.stackexchange.com/questions/35096/… \$\endgroup\$
    – hmatt1
    Jan 23, 2015 at 0:57
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ I noticed that. There's an anecdote for why I asked this question. I encouraged my friend to learn programming, and he took a java class last summer where each student had to pick a project. He told me he wanted to translate text to binary, which I then did (to his dismay) in python 3 in 1 line (a very long line). I find it incredible that his project idea can be distilled down to 8 bytes. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 4:12
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ that's cool, thanks for sharing! I do like easier questions like this because it gives more people a chance to participate and generates lots of content in the form of answers. \$\endgroup\$
    – hmatt1
    Jan 23, 2015 at 4:22
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Does it has to be ASCII? i.e., if a technology is not ASCII compatible, could the results reflect that? \$\endgroup\$ Apr 13, 2019 at 11:13
  • 6
    \$\begingroup\$ Is it acceptable to output with a separator other than spaces (e.g. a newline)? \$\endgroup\$ Sep 3, 2019 at 9:51

65 Answers 65

14
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Python 3, 41 bytes

print(*[bin(ord(x))[2:]for x in input()])

Like KSFT's answer, but I thought I'd point out that, in addition to raw_input -> input, Python 3 also has an advantage here due to the splat for print.

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13
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CJam, 8 bytes

l:i2fbS*

Easy-peasy:

l:i           "Read the input line and convert each character to its ASCII value";
   2fb        "Put 2 on stack and use that to convert each ASCII value to base 2";
      S*      "Join the binary numbers by space";

Try it here

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9
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Pyth, 10 bytes

jdmjkjCd2z

Python mapping and explanation:

j           # join(                               "Join by space"
 d          #      d,                             "this space"
 m          #      Pmap(lambda d:                 "Map characters of input string"
  j         #                    join(            "Join by empty string"
   k        #                        k,           "this empty string"
    j       #                        join(        "This is not a join, but a base conversion"
     C      #                             Pchr(   "Convert the character to ASCII"
      d     #                                  d  "this character"
            #                                 ),
     2      #                             2       "Convert to base 2"
            #                            )
            #                        ),
  z         #           z)))                      "mapping over the input string"

Input is the string that needs to be converted without the quotes.

Try it here

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6
  • 10
    \$\begingroup\$ Is asdfghjlkl also a valid pyth program? What does it do? \$\endgroup\$
    – flawr
    Jan 22, 2015 at 22:57
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @flawr That compiles to the python Psum(d).append(Pfilter(lambda T:gte(head(join(Plen(k),Plen()))))), whee d=' ' and k=''. So no, it is not valid at all. \$\endgroup\$
    – isaacg
    Jan 22, 2015 at 23:11
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Thanks for the Pyth solution. I just started learning it today, but I think it will take some time getting used to. Any suggestions? \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 4:09
  • 12
    \$\begingroup\$ @ericmark26 look around your room or office, and smash everything that you can find into your keyboard and see if it interprets. Figure out what it does, and then repeat with the next object. When you run out, try different rotations. \$\endgroup\$
    – globby
    Jan 23, 2015 at 5:35
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ @ericmark26 I think the best way to get used to Pyth is to take some simple Python programs, and translate them into Pyth. \$\endgroup\$
    – isaacg
    Jan 23, 2015 at 18:47
5
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MITS Altair 8800, 0 bytes

Input string is at memory address #0000H (allowed). Output in binary via front panel I/O lights D7-D0.

Example, do RESET, then EXAMINE to see the first byte, followed by repeating EXAMINE NEXT to see the rest.

"H" = 01 001 000:

enter image description here

"e" = 01 100 101:

enter image description here

"l" = 01 101 100:

enter image description here

Try it online!

Non-competing, of course. :)

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4
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Python 3 - 43 bytes


print(*map("{:b}".format,input().encode()))

No quite the shortest, but an interesting approach IMO. It has the added advantage that if the number of significant bits varies, E.G. Hi!, padding with zeros is trivial (2 more bytes, as opposed to 9 for .zfill(8)):

print(*map("{:08b}".format,input().encode()))
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3
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Python - 52

print" ".join([bin(ord(i))[2:]for i in raw_input()])

I'll work on translating this into Pyth. Someone else did a Pyth answer already.

If you don't care about it being a full program or about I/O format and use Python 3, you can do it in 23 bytes like this:

[bin(ord(i))for i in x]

x is the input.

I know this doesn't count because the interpreter wasn't released before the challenge was posted, but here it is in KSFTgolf:

oan
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3
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Ruby, 34 28 24 bytes

$<.bytes{|c|$><<"%b "%c}

Takes input via STDIN. 6 bytes saved thanks for AShelly and another 4 thanks to britishtea.

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3
  • \$\begingroup\$ trim by 6 with $<.each_byte{|c|$><<"%b "%c} \$\endgroup\$
    – AShelly
    Jan 23, 2015 at 19:07
  • \$\begingroup\$ You can shave off some more characters by using String#bytes instead of String#each_byte. The block form is deprecated, but it still works :) \$\endgroup\$
    – britishtea
    Jan 23, 2015 at 22:16
  • \$\begingroup\$ @britishtea Oh, nice. thank you! \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 22:55
3
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PowerShell, 63 59 46 bytes

-13 bytes thanks to @mazzy

"$($args|% t*y|%{[Convert]::ToString(+$_,2)})"

Try it online!

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1
3
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Forth (gforth), 45 bytes

: f 0 do dup i + c@ 2 base ! . decimal loop ;

Try it online!

Code Explanation

: f           \ start a new word definition
  0 do        \ start a loop from 0 to string length - 1
    dup i +   \ duplicate the address and add the loop index to get addr of current character
    c@        \ get the character at that address
    2 base !  \ set the base to binary
    .         \ print the ascii value (in binary)
    decimal   \ set the base back to decimal
  loop        \ end the loop
;             \ end the word definition
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2
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Matlab

This is an anonymous function

f=@(x) dec2bin(char(x))

usage is f('Hello World').

Alternatively, if x is defined as the string Hello World! in the workspace, then just dec2bin(char(x)) will work.

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5
  • \$\begingroup\$ I'm not sure about how to score this because I'm not sure how I can get the input. Any comments? \$\endgroup\$
    – David
    Jan 23, 2015 at 0:12
  • \$\begingroup\$ Why char? I think you mean dec2bin(x)-'0' \$\endgroup\$
    – Luis Mendo
    Jan 23, 2015 at 16:09
  • \$\begingroup\$ Because I'm not that clever! \$\endgroup\$
    – David
    Jan 24, 2015 at 4:34
  • \$\begingroup\$ My point is: char(x), when x is already a string, does nothing. So you can remove it to save some space. On the other hand, the result of dec2bin is a string, and I think the output should be numbers \$\endgroup\$
    – Luis Mendo
    Jan 24, 2015 at 11:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ I understand, and you are right, of course. Matlab makes it easy to forget about data types sometimes. \$\endgroup\$
    – David
    Jan 26, 2015 at 5:12
2
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J - 9

1":#:3&u:

No idea how to make this in a row without doubling the length of the code, I need J gurus to tell me :)

1":#:3&u:'Hello world!'
1001000
1100101
1101100
1101100
1101111
0100000
1110111
1101111
1110010
1101100
1100100
0100001
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1
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ You can add ". to the beginning. It evaluates your result so it will be in one line and separated by spaces. Even shorter is to create base10 numbers with the base2 digits: 10#.#:3&u:. \$\endgroup\$
    – randomra
    Jan 23, 2015 at 11:53
2
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Java - 148 Bytes

public class sToB{public static void main(String[] a){for(int i=0;i<a[0].length();i++){System.out.print(Integer.toString(a[0].charAt(i) ,2)+" ");}}}

Edited to include full file

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7
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ I think OP wants a full program, not just a snippet. Plus, it can be golfed a lot more, methinks. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 11:47
  • \$\begingroup\$ that is the full program, if you put that in a main class, it will run. as for better golfing, probably but i could not spot how. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 13:10
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ The full program includes the main class, too. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 13:19
  • \$\begingroup\$ could be shorter using for(char c:a[0].toCharArray()){ or even for(byte b:a[0].getBytes()){ since the input is ascii, assuming a non-utf-16 machine locale \$\endgroup\$
    – njzk2
    Jan 23, 2015 at 15:00
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ You can get rid of the public and shorten the program name to a single char to win more bytes. Plus, (String[]a)is perfectly accepted by the compiler, earning you another byte. \$\endgroup\$ Jan 23, 2015 at 15:33
2
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JavaScript ES6, 63 65 bytes

alert([for(c of prompt())c.charCodeAt().toString(2)].join(' '))

This is rather long, thanks to JavaScript's long function names. The Stack Snippet below is the rough ES5 equivalent, so it can be run in any browser. Thanks to edc65 for the golfing improvements.

alert(prompt().split('').map(function(e){return e.charCodeAt().toString(2)}).join(' '))

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2
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ [for of] is slightly shorter than [...].map to enumerate charactes in strings: alert([for(c of prompt())c.charCodeAt().toString(2)].join(' ')) \$\endgroup\$
    – edc65
    Jan 23, 2015 at 14:03
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ You can golf off two bytes by replacing .join(' ') with .join` ` . You can golf off a lot of bytes by using a function instead of prompt/alert \$\endgroup\$
    – RamenChef
    Nov 1, 2017 at 15:44
2
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Scala - 59 - 55 Bytes

readLine().map(x=>print(x.toByte.toInt.toBinaryString))

Normally, one should use foreach and not map.

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2
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Python 3.6, 39 bytes

print(*[f'{ord(c):b}'for c in input()])

Try it online!

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2
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Ruby, 24 bytes

I was hoping to beat Martin Ender, but I only managed to tie him.

Takes input on STDIN; +1 bytes for -p flag.

gsub(/./){"%b "%$&.ord}

Try it online!

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2
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Python 3, 39 bytes

print(*[f'{ord(i):b}'for i in input()])

Try it online!

Slight improvement over the current leading Python answer

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2
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x86-16 machine code, IBM PC DOS, 33 31 28 bytes

Binary:

00000000: d1ee ad8a c849 b308 ac92 b000 d0e2 1430  .....I.........0
00000010: cd29 4b75 f5b0 20cd 29e2 ebc3            .)Ku.. .)...

Listing:

D1 EE       SHR  SI, 1          ; point SI to DOS PSP (80H) 
AD          LODSW               ; load input string length into AL, SI to 82H  
8A C8       MOV  CL, AL         ; set up loop counter 
49          DEC  CX             ; remove leading space/slash from char count 
        LOOP_CHAR: 
B3 08       MOV  BL, 8          ; loop 8 bits 
AC          LODSB               ; load next char 
92          XCHG AX, DX         ; use DX for bit shift 
        LOOP_BIT: 
B0 00       MOV  AL, 0          ; clear AL 
D0 E2       SHL  DL, 1          ; high-order bit into CF 
14 30       ADC  AL, '0'        ; AL = '0' + CF              
CD 29       INT  29H            ; write AL to screen 
4B          DEC  BX             ; decrement bit counter 
75 F5       JNZ  LOOP_BIT       ; loop next bit              
B0 20       MOV  AL, ' '        ; display a space 
CD 29       INT  29H            ; write AL to screen 
E2 EB       LOOP LOOP_CHAR      ; loop next char 
C3          RET                 ; return to DOS

A standalone PC DOS executable COM file. Input is via command line, output to screen.

enter image description here

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2
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Vyxal S, 3 bytes

bƛṅ

Try it Online!

Explanation:

b    # Convert each letter to a list of bits
 ƛ   # In each list of bits:
  ṅ  #   Join elements
     # 'S' flag - join top of stack with spaces and output
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2
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Rust, 47 45 bytes

|s:&str|for i in s.bytes(){print!("{:b} ",i)}

Try it online!

A closure iterating over the string, converting each character to its ascii number, then printing out it's binary equivalent with :b

Turns out you don't need {} always to define a closure

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1
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Haskell, 65

m s=tail$do c<-s;' ':do j<-[6,5..0];show$mod(fromEnum c`div`2^j)2

heavy use of the list monad. it couldn't be converted to list comprehentions because the last statements weren't a return.

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1
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C++ - 119 bytes

Freeing memory? What's that?

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstdlib>
int main(int c,char**v){for(*v=new char[9];c=*(v[1]++);printf("%s ",itoa(c,*v,2)));}

(MSVC compiles the code with warning)

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1
1
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Jelly, 3 bytes

OBK

Try it online!

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1
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Tcl, 52 bytes

proc B s {binary s $s B* b;regsub -all .{8} $b {& }}

Try it online!

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1
1
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APL (Dyalog), 12 bytes

10⊥2⊥⍣¯1⎕UCS

Try it online!

Thanks to Adám for help with this solution.

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1
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Commodore VIC-20/C64/128 and TheC64Mini, 101 tokenized BASIC bytes

Here is the obfuscated listing using Commodore BASIC keyword abbreviations:

 0dEfnb(x)=sG(xaNb):inputa$:fOi=1tolen(a$):b=64:c$=mI(a$,i,1):fOj=0to6
 1?rI(str$(fnb(aS(c$))),1);:b=b/2:nEj:?" ";:nE

Here for explanation purposes is the non-obfuscated symbolic listing:

 0 def fn b(x)=sgn(x and b)
 1 input a$
 2 for i=1 to len(a$)
 3 let b=64
 4 let c$=mid$(a$,i,1)
 5 for j=0 to 6
 6 print right$(str$(fn b(asc(c$))),1);
 7 let b=b/2
 8 next j
 9 print " ";
10 next i

The function fn b declared on line zero accepts a numeric parameter of x which is ANDed with the value of b; SGN is then used to convert x and b to 1 or 0.

Line one accept a string input to the variable a$, and the loop starts (denoted with i) to the length of that input. b represents each bit from the 6th to 0th bit. c$ takes each character of the string at position i.

line 5 starts the loop to test each bit position; right$ is used in line 6 to remove a auto-formatting issue when Commodore BASIC displays a number, converting the output of fn b to a string; asc(c$) converts the current character to its ascii code as a decimal value.

Line 7 represents the next bit value. The loop j is ended before printing a space, then the last loop i is ended.

C64 converting PETSCII to Binary

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1
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JavaScript ES6, 71 bytes

alert(prompt().split('').map(c=>c.charCodeAt(0).toString(2))).join(' ')
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1
  • \$\begingroup\$ Welcome to PPCG! You need .split('') to split at the empty string; .split() turns "abc" into ["abc"]. \$\endgroup\$
    – Dennis
    Apr 13, 2019 at 1:55
1
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><>, 34 bytes

i\~48*o
?\:0(?;:2%:}-2,:0=
?\{nl1=

Try it online!

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1
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05AB1E, 4 bytes

Çbðý

Try it online.

Explanation:

Ç     # Convert the (implicit) input-string to a list of unicode values
 b    # Convert each integer to a binary string
  ðý  # Join by spaces (and output the result implicitly)

Could be just the first two bytes if a list output is allowed, or 3 bytes with » if a newline delimiter instead of space delimiter is allowed.

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1
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Perl 5, 21 bytes

printf'%b ',ord for@F

Try it online!

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