I was looking around on the web and I found this Google Code Jam Puzzle. I really liked it so I decided to post it here.
New Lottery Game
The Lottery is changing! The Lottery used to have a machine to generate a random winning number. But due to cheating problems, the Lottery has decided to add another machine. The new winning number will be the result of the bitwise-AND operation between the two random numbers generated by the two machines.
To find the bitwise-AND of X and Y, write them both in binary; then a bit in the result in binary has a 1 if the corresponding bits of X and Y were both 1, and a 0 otherwise. In most programming languages, the bitwise-AND of X and Y is written X&Y.
For example: The old machine generates the number 7 = 0111. The new machine generates the number 11 = 1011. The winning number will be (7 AND 11) = (0111 AND 1011) = 0011 = 3.
With this measure, the Lottery expects to reduce the cases of fraudulent claims, but unfortunately an employee from the Lottery company has leaked the following information: the old machine will always generate a non-negative integer less than A and the new one will always generate a non-negative integer less than B.
Catalina wants to win this lottery and to give it a try she decided to buy all non-negative integers less than K.
Given A, B and K, Catalina would like to know in how many different ways the machines can generate a pair of numbers that will make her a winner.
Could you help her?Input
The first line of the input gives the number of test cases, T. T lines follow, each line with three numbers A B K.Output
For each test case, output one line containing "Case #x: y", where x is the test case number (starting from 1) and y is the number of possible pairs that the machines can generate to make Catalina a winner.Limits
1 ≤ T ≤ 100. Small dataset
1 ≤ A ≤ 1000. 1 ≤ B ≤ 1000. 1 ≤ K ≤ 1000. Large dataset
1 ≤ A ≤ 109. 1 ≤ B ≤ 109. 1 ≤ K ≤ 109. Sample
Input Output 5 Case #1: 10 3 4 2 Case #2: 16 4 5 2 Case #3: 52 7 8 5 Case #4: 2411 45 56 35 Case #5: 14377 103 143 88
In the first test case, these are the 10 possible pairs generated by the old and new machine respectively that will make her a winner: <0,0>, <0,1>, <0,2>, <0,3>, <1,0>, <1,1>, <1,2>, <1,3>, <2,0> and <2,1>. Notice that <0,1> is not the same as <1,0>. Also, although the pair <2, 2> could be generated by the machines it wouldn't make Catalina win since (2 AND 2) = 2 and she only bought the numbers 0 and 1.
Here's the link for actual problem: https://code.google.com/codejam/contest/2994486/dashboard#s=p1
This is code-golf, so shortest code wins. Good Luck