# Little Chandler is sad. Draw him a cloud to cheer him up

Little Chandler is sad. Draw him a cloud to cheer him up.
Note: Drawing a cloud won't actually cheer him up.

A circle can be defined as a 3-tuple (x,y,r) where x is the x position of the circle on a Cartesian plane, y is the y position of the circle on a Cartesian plane, and r is the radius of the circle. x and y may be negative. r is always positive. The input is a list of circles in the form of space separated 3-tuples. For instance:

3,1,1 3,2,1.5 1,2,0.7 0.9,1.2,1.2 1,0,0.8


The 3,1,1 means "A circle with centre point at 3,1 with 1 radius. 3,2,1.5 means "A circle with centre point at 3,2 with 1.5 radius.

If we draw all of these circles of the input on a graph, it looks like this (I've included grid lines and labels for clarity only; they are not required): Notice how all the circles are cohesive. That is, they're all overlapped together such that it forms one large group without any small groups of circles separated from the rest. The input is guaranteed to be cohesive.

Suppose now we draw a line that travels around the "border" formed by these circles, without any of the other lines. It would be like drawing the border of the silhouette formed by all the circles. The resulting cloud would look something like this: So this cloud has been formed by drawing only the arcs of the circles in the input that form a border, resulting in a single shape. In other words, the cloud is formed by only drawing the arcs that are not within another circle. Your program will take in input in the form explained above, and output an image that displays the resulting cloud. The overall shape of the cloud must be correct, but the scale, colour, line thickness, and how it looks at vertexes is up to you. Note that the cloud must be visible, so you can't pull something like "This program draws a white cloud on a white background", "This program draws a cloud at a infinitesimally small scale", "This program draws a cloud with 0 line thickness", etc. Also note that the colour of the border must be different from the colour of the fill or background.

Another example. Input:

1,4,2 5,2,1 3,1,1 3.5,2,1.2 3,3,0.7 1,2,0.7


Output: If there is a "hole" in the cloud, you should draw the hole as well. Input:

0,5,4 3,4,4 4,3,4 5,0,4 4,-3,4 3,-4,4 0,-5,4 -3,-4,4 -4,-3,4 -5,0,4 -4,3,4 -3,4,4


Output: Here is an important rule: your program must draw only the lines that form the border. This means that you CANNOT simply draw the circles fully, and then draw the circles slightly smaller with a white fill -- because that method still draws lines that don't form a border, it just covers them up afterwards. The purpose of the rule was to prevent the "draw the circles, then draw the circles again with a white fill" implementations, or anything similar to that. The answer is expected to actually calculate where to draw things before drawing it.

This is code golf, so the shortest character count wins.

• +1 for an graphical-output question with an objective winning criterion (and the first paragraph). – Dennis Sep 23 '14 at 3:57
• How can you tell if we draw a line and erase it afterwards? Is rendering said lines onto internal bitmaps OK? If not, where is the border, between a vector and a bitmap representation? If yes, why not let us do the same with the primary canvas (that we know is double-buffered, so that the user can't see our temporary lines)? – John Dvorak Sep 23 '14 at 4:03
• ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​@JanDvorak The purpose of the rule was to prevent the "draw the circles, then draw the circles again with a white fill" implementations, or anything similiar to that. The answer is expected to actually calculate where to draw things before drawing it. I'll edit to make it more clear. – absinthe Sep 23 '14 at 4:05
• This question is absolutely hilarious with Cloud to Butt (chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/cloud-to-butt-plus/…) installed. – Erty Seidohl Sep 23 '14 at 14:25
• @SomeKittens I lost it at "If there is a "hole" in the cloud, you should draw the hole as well." – Erty Seidohl Sep 23 '14 at 20:59

# Mathematica 177 126 121 119

## Solving by Disk Regions: the mathematician's approach

The logic is to

• Create Region 1 (R1), the circles (without their interiors);
• Create Region 2 (R2), the disks (without the circle borders).
• Create Region 3 (R3 = R1-R2).
• - This is precisely the approach taken below. It produced the 3 figures above.

input = "3,1,1 3,2,1.5 1,2,0.7 0.9,1.2,1.2 1,0,0.8";
circles = ((x - #)^2 + (y - #2)^2 == #3^2) & @@@
ToExpression[#~StringSplit~","] &@(StringSplit@input);
R1 = ImplicitRegion[Or @@ circles, {x, y}];
r1 = RegionPlot[R1, PlotLabel -> "R1: circles containing borders",
AspectRatio -> 1, PlotRange -> {{-1, 5}, {-1, 5}}];

innerDisks = ((x - #)^2 + (y - #2)^2 < #3^2) & @@@
ToExpression[#~StringSplit~","] &@(StringSplit@input);
R2 = ImplicitRegion[Or @@ innerDisks, {x, y}];
r2 = RegionPlot[R2, PlotLabel -> "R2: disks within circle borders",
AspectRatio -> 1, PlotRange -> {{-1, 5}, {-1, 5}}];
R3 = RegionDifference[R1, R2]
r3 = RegionPlot[R3, PlotLabel -> "R3 = R1-R2", AspectRatio -> 1,
PlotRange -> {{-1, 5}, {-1, 5}}];
GraphicsGrid[{{r1, r2, r3}}, ImageSize -> 600]


Implicit region #1 is the union of the circles. Implicit region #2 is the union of the disks lying within the circles. Their difference is the border.

RegionDifference[
ImplicitRegion[(-3 + x)^2 + (-1 + y)^2 == 1 || (-3 + x)^2 + (-2 + y)^2 == 2.25 || (-1 + x)^2 + (-2 + y)^2 == 0.49 || (-0.9 + x)^2 + (-1.2 + y)^2 == 1.44 || (-1 + x)^2 + y^2 == 0.64, {x, y}],
ImplicitRegion[(-3 + x)^2 + (-1 + y)^2 < 1 || (-3 + x)^2 + (-2 + y)^2 < 2.25 || (-1 + x)^2 + (-2 + y)^2 < 0.49 || (-0.9 + x)^2 + (-1.2 + y)^2 < 1.44 || (-1 + x)^2 + y^2 < 0.64, {x, y}]]

## Solving by Disk Regions: the engineer's approach (119 chars)

The following takes the union of the disk regions, discretizes that region, and finds it's boundary. The points in the diagram demarcate the intervals of the Delaunay mesh. We display the discretized region below to highlight the object that furnishes the boundary of interest (the outline of the cloud).

s = StringSplit;RegionBoundary@DiscretizeRegion[RegionUnion[Disk[{#, #2}, #3] &@@@
ToExpression[#~s~","] &@(s@InputString[])]]


"3,1,1 3,2,1.5 1,2,0.7 0.9,1.2,1.2 1,0,0.8"

The region boundary is discretized. ## Solving by Detecting Edges: The Photographer's Approach - 121 chars It draws the disks in black, rasterizes the image, detects the edges, and inverts black and white.

s=StringSplit;ColorNegate@EdgeDetect@Rasterize@Graphics[Disk[{#,#2},#3]&@@@
((ToExpression/@s[#,","])&/@s[InputString[]])]

• Shaved off 5 bytes: RegionBoundary@DiscretizeRegion@RegionUnion[{#,#2}~Disk~#3&@@@ToExpression[#~s~","]&@s@InputString[s=StringSplit]] – Martin Ender Sep 24 '14 at 11:17
• Potentially the s=StringSplit inside the prompt? Try moving that in front again, should still be shorter than your current version. – Martin Ender Sep 24 '14 at 12:02

# T-SQL 235234229212171 73 bytes

This makes use of spatial functionality in SQL Server 2012+. When it is run in SSMS (SQL Server Management Studio) is produces a spatial results pane. The input is from variable @i. I could reduce it further if the input could be taken from a table.

Since table input is now allowed.

SELECT Geometry::UnionAggregate(Geometry::Point(X,Y,0).STBuffer(R))FROM A


I've left the previous solution below.

DECLARE @ VARCHAR(999)='WITH a AS(SELECT *FROM(VALUES('+REPLACE(@i,' ','),(')+'))A(X,Y,R))SELECT Geometry::UnionAggregate(Geometry::Point(X,Y,0).STBuffer(R))FROM a'EXEC(@)


Edit: Remove stray space, surplus into and subquery

171: Replaced table creation with CTE and @s with @. Break down of the Dynamic SQL

DECLARE @i VARCHAR(100) = '1,4,2 5,2,1 3,1,1 3.5,2,1.2 3,3,0.7 1,2,0.7' -- Input
DECLARE @ VARCHAR(999) = '
WITH a AS(                                       --CTE to produce rows of x,y,r
SELECT *FROM(VALUES('+
REPLACE(@i,' ','),(')                    --Format @i to a value set
+'))A(X,Y,R)
)
SELECT Geometry::UnionAggregate(                 --Aggregate Buffered Points
Geometry::Point(X,Y,0).STBuffer(R)           --Create point and buffer
)
FROM a                                           --from the table variable
'
EXEC(@)                                          --Execute Dynamic sql

• I'm getting an error saying 'A' has fewer columns than were specified in the column list – Jesan Fafon Sep 26 '14 at 18:34
• @JesanFafon Make sure your input variable @i is set correctly. DECLARE @i VARCHAR(100) = '1,4,2 5,2,1 3,1,1 3.5,2,1.2 3,3,0.7 1,2,0.7'. Unfortunately I can't test at he moment and SQLfiddle isn't playing nicely for 2012. – MickyT Sep 26 '14 at 19:05
• Nice work with SQL geometry functions. Good news! Input by pre-existing table is now explicitly allowed. Table creation and population need not be included in the byte count. – BradC Jan 11 '18 at 15:44
• I golfed a few characters. The link doesn't produce a result. But it works in ms-sql server management studio. Script is here, enjoy. Feel free to use it – t-clausen.dk Mar 22 at 9:54
• @t-clausen.dk thanks for that, but since I am going to update it I will change it to allowed table input. I wasn't going to dredge this one back up, but... – MickyT Mar 22 at 21:42

## Mathematica, 175158 149 bytes

s=StringSplit;l=ToExpression[#~s~","]&@s@InputString[];RegionPlot[Or@@(Norm@{x-#,y-#2}<#3&@@@l),{x,m=Min@(k={{##}-#3,{##}+#3}&@@@l),M=Max@k},{y,m,M}]


I remember from discussion in the sandbox that this approach was supposed to be valid, but I'm not entirely sure how it sits with the new wording of the rules, so @Lilac, let me know if you think this violates the rules.

Basically, I'm creating a logical condition which is true for all points inside the cloud and false for all points outside it. I'm feeding that to RegionPlot which then renders the region of all points where the expression is True as well as an outline around it. Ungolfed:

s = StringSplit;
l = ToExpression[#~s~","] &@s@InputString[];
RegionPlot[
Or @@ (Norm@{x - #, y - #2} < #3 & @@@ l),
{x, m = Min@(k = {{##} - #3, {##} + #3} & @@@ l), M = Max@k},
{y, m, M}
]

• ImplicitRegion automatically finds the proper x and y values for plotting. 122 chars: s = StringSplit; RegionPlot@ ImplicitRegion[ Or @@ (((x - #)^2 + (y - #2)^2 < #3^2) & @@@ (ToExpression[#~s~","] &@(s@InputString[]))), {x, y}] – DavidC Sep 23 '14 at 23:31
• @DavidCarraher Unfortunately, this distorts the aspect ratio of the image. (Nice to know all those region functions though - also the ones you used - I've only seen RegionPlot so far.) – Martin Ender Sep 24 '14 at 8:25
• You probably already noted that ,AspectRatio-> 1 brings the code back to 149 bytes, exactly where it stands now. – DavidC Sep 24 '14 at 11:59
• Is it me or does this image look like Marvin the Paranoid Android? – paqogomez Sep 24 '14 at 19:33

## Python 3.3 (183177164 160 bytes)

B=list(map(eval,input().split()))
print("".join(" ## "[sum(any(r*r>(x-d%80/4+10)**2+(y+d//80/4-10)**2for
x,y,r in B)for d in[i,i+1,i+80])]for i in range(6400)))


It requires an 80 character wide console, which I know is the default in Windows. It works best if your console has a square font. Here are some excerpts from some of the test inputs.

Original:

           ########
##       #
##         #
#####          #
##   #          #
##               #
##                #
##                 #
#                  #
#                 ##
#               ##
#       ##      #
#      # #    ##
#      #  #####
#      #
#    ##
#  ##
###


Another:

    ########
###       ##
##           #
#            #
##             #
#              #
#              #
#              #
#              #
#               ##
#                 #
#                 ##
#                   ######
#                        #
##      ###             #
#    ## #             #
#    #  #             #
#  ## ##             #
###  #             ##
#       #######
#      ##
#      #
#    ##
#####


Hole:

                              ############
###           ##
###               ##
##                   #
########                     #######
###                                   ##
###                                       ##
##                                           #
##                                             #
##                                               #
##                                                 #
##                                                   #
##                                                     #
##                                                       #
##                                                         #
#                                                          #
##                                                           #
#                                                            #
##                                                             #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
##                                                               #
##                                                                 #
#                                                                  #
##                                                                   #
#                                                                    #
##                                                                     #
#                                 ####                                 #
#                                ##   #                                #
#                               ##     #                               #
#                              ##       #                              #
#                              #        #                              #
#                              #        #                              #
#                               #      ##                              #
#                                #    ##                               #
#                                 #  ##                                #
#                                  ###                                 #
#                                                                    ##
#                                                                    #
#                                                                  ##
#                                                                  #
#                                                                ##
#                                                              ##
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                              #
#                                                            ##
#                                                            #
#                                                          ##
#                                                          #
#                                                        ##
#                                                      ##
#                                                    ##
#                                                  ##
#                                                ##
#                                              ##
#                                            ##
#                                          ##
##                                      ###
##                                  ###
#######                    ########
#                  ##
##              ###
##          ###
###########

• I love that this is the only ascii art solution. – vmrob Sep 26 '14 at 23:50
• no imports... impressive! – Richard Green Sep 29 '14 at 16:11

# Python - 253249215 199

This is an advertisement for the awesome shapely library, whose geometry operations made writing the solution straightforward by drawing the outline(s) of the union of overlapping circles (=buffered points):

from pylab import*
from shapely.geometry import*
c=Point()
for s in raw_input().split():
x,y,r=eval(s)
c=c.union(Point(x,y).buffer(r))
plot(*c.exterior.xy)
for i in c.interiors:
plot(*i.xy)
show()


Output: Edit(s):

• 249: Replaced sys.argv[1:] by raw_input().split(), saving a import sys
• 215: Removed k={'color':'k'} luxury, replaced savefig by show
• 199: Replaced map(float,s.split(',')) by eval(s)

## Python – 535

import math as m
import matplotlib.pyplot as l
c = "3,1,1 3,2,1.5 1,2,0.7 0.9,1.2,1.2 1,0,0.8"
a = [[float(y) for y in x.split(",")] for x in c.split(" ")]
for a2 in a:
for x in xrange(0,200):
q=x*m.pi/100.0
p=(a2+m.sin(q)*a2, a2+m.cos(q)*a2)
cc = []
for z in a:
if z != a2:
if ((z - p) ** 2 + (z - p) ** 2 ) < (z ** 2) :
cc.append(z)
if not cc:
l.scatter(p,p)
l.show()

• This has a lot potential for being golfed down further, e.g., by from math import* removing unneded spaces, using one-letter variable names only, using list comprehension (e.g., cc=[z for z in a if z!=a2 and (z…)]). Also take a look at the tips for golfing in Python. – Wrzlprmft Sep 23 '14 at 15:57
• You could save some characters by using a one-letter variable name instead of a2. – ProgramFOX Sep 23 '14 at 16:11
• thanks wrzl... I will probably start golfing tonight (other things to do right now but wanted to put a stake in the ground) – Richard Green Sep 23 '14 at 16:11
• yes @ProgramFOX ... this was a version that worked and that I could debug.. will get it shorter tonight... – Richard Green Sep 23 '14 at 16:13
• @JamesWilliams if you want to take the baton... please do .. I'm not protective of the code !! Feel free to add it as your own entry (as long as you credit the original !) – Richard Green Sep 23 '14 at 20:13

## Python – 296249231223 212

from pylab import*
a=map(eval,raw_input().split())
for x,y,r in a:
for i in range(200):
q=i*pi/100;p=x+r*sin(q);t=y+r*cos(q);[z for z in a if z!=(x,y,r)and(z-p)**2+(z-t)**2<z**2]or scatter(p,t)
show()


Credit goes to @richard-green (permission was given) for the original solution, I've just whittled it down a bit.

• well that gets my vote... – Richard Green Sep 23 '14 at 21:13
• You might be able to save some more by importing pylab instead of matplotlib.pyplot. – ojdo Sep 23 '14 at 21:32
• @odjo Currently on mobile, if I used from pylab import * would I still be able to call show() and scatter() without any references? – James Williams Sep 23 '14 at 21:40
• @JamesWilliams confirmed! Pylab is a namespace polluter, including many MATLAB-like functions :-) – ojdo Sep 23 '14 at 23:04
• You can shorten this by using [eval(i)for i in raw_input().split()] as python's eval turns 1,2,3 into a tuple. You will also of course have to change the [x,y,r] to a (x,y,r). – KSab Sep 24 '14 at 1:39

# JavaScript (E6) + HTML 322

JSFiddle

Each circle is subdivided in about 100 small arcs, and each arc is drawn if its middle point is not inside any of the other circles.

<canvas id='c'/>
<script>
t=c.getContext("2d"),z=99,c.width=c.height=400,
l=prompt().split(' ').map(c=>c.split(',').map(v=>40*v)),
l.map(c=>{
for(i=z;--i+z;)
s=4/z,r=c,x=c+r*Math.cos(a=i*s),y=c+r*Math.sin(a),
t.beginPath(),
l.some(q=>c!=q&(d=x-q,e=y-q,d*d+e*e<q*q))||t.arc(z+c,z+c,r,a-s,a+s),
t.stroke()
})
</script>


# Python 274 bytes

This takes input from stdin and checks every point on the display, drawing the pixels one by one as it goes. Not exactly efficient but it follows all the rules.

c=[eval(s)for s in raw_input().split()]
import pygame
S=pygame.display.set_mode((500,500))
S.fill(*3)
for p in((x,y)for x in range(500)for y in range(500)if 0<min((((x-250)/25.-a)**2+((y-250)/25.-b)**2)**.5-r for(a,b,r)in c)<.1):S.set_at(p,*3)
pygame.display.update()


Note that the pygame display will terminate as soon as the drawing is complete, I wasn't sure if I should include it as part of my answer but to view it you can either throw a raw_input in at the end or add a little loop if you want to stop the OS from complaining about it not responding and such:

alive = True
while alive:
pygame.display.update()
for e in pygame.event.get():
if e.type == pygame.QUIT:
alive = False


Example images:

1,4,2 5,2,1 3,1,1 3.5,2,1.2 3,3,0.7, 1,2,0.7 0,5,4 3,4,4 4,3,4 5,0,4 4,-3,4 3,-4,4 0,-5,4 -3,-4,4 -4,-3,4 -5,0,4 -4,3,4 -3,4,4 • @edc65 I'm not quite sure what you mean. What it does precisely is fill in any pixel that is between 0 and 0.1 units (between 0 and 2.5 pixels) outside the circles. Are you saying it should mathematically find the correct arcs to draw? From reading the question it didn't seem like that was a restriction to me. – KSab Sep 23 '14 at 13:45

## Perl - 430

@e=map{[map{int($_*32)}split',']}(split' ',<>);for$g(@e){for(0..3){($a[$_]>($q=$$g[_&1]+((_>>1)*2-1)*$$g))^($_>>1)&&($a[$_]=$q)}}for(2,3){$a[$_]-=$a[$_-2]-1}for(@e){($x,$y,$r)=@$_;$x-=$a;$y-=$a;for$k($x-$r..$x+$r){for$l($y-$r..$y+$r){$i=(int(sqrt(($x-$k)**2+($y-$l)**2)+0.5)<=>$r)-1;$f[$l][$k]=($j=$f[$l][$k])<-1||$i<-1?-2:$i||$j;}}}print"P1$a $a ".join(" ",map{join' ',map{$_+1?0:1}@$_,('0')x($a-@\$_)}@f)."
"


Writes a pbm file to stdout.

Test image (converted to png): 