Few years ago, an esoteric programming language named 아희(Aheui) was created. Well, actually you don't need to know about this language or Korean characters.

Aheui uses stacks and a queue, but this time we use one stack and ignore other stacks and queue. You can push a number between 2 and 9 into a stack. You can do arithmetic operations by popping two numbers and pushing result. And you can duplicate a top number.

So, when I need a big number in Aheui, making a number was not an easy work. Push, push, multiply, duplicate, push, multiply, push, add…. It takes too much time and sometimes waste of bytes. I need a shortest expressions.


Your task is to write a function or a program which takes a number n (0 <= n <= 1000000) and returns concatenation of tokens.

Tokens are basically a postfix notation. Tokens are consisted of

  • Number between 2 and 9, which means "push number into stack"
  • +, -, /, *, which means "pop two numbers from stack, do arithmetic operation, push the result into stack". All calculations are in integer.
  • >, which means "duplicate a top number"

Tokens will be concatenated with empty string, so 5 5 + will be 55+.

After calculations, n must be on the top of the stack.

Sample input and output

OUTPUT = 22-
(or 33-, 44-, whatever)

OUTPUT = 22/
(or 32-, 33/, whatever)

(We don't need calculations, just push)

INPUT = 64
OUTPUT = 88*
(or 8>*)

INPUT = 1337
OUTPUT = 75*2+>*48*-
(This may not be a shortest solution)


This is a list of test cases. Test cases are seperated by a new line character. You may write a test script which converts those bunch of numbers to string of tokens, or you can do it by your hand.


  • S = size of complete function or program
  • O = length of converted strings
  • I = size of test cases (In this case, I = 526)

Then your score will be S * (O / I). Sizes are in bytes.

S includes function declarations, #includes, imports, whatever. Test script is not counted.

Scoring example

Let S is 150.

Sample Test cases


Sample Output


In this case, I = 9, and O = 21. So your score is 150 * (21 / 9) = 350.


  • Standard "loopholes" are forbidden.
  • Lowest score wins.
  • If there is a tie, smaller code size wins.
  • Winner will be selected after three weeks (2014-08-04).

I wrote a validator in Node.js. Put input.txt and output.txt in same directory, and run node validator.js.

And I found two-year-old similar question. But scoring is different (this question includes code size in score), and this question can't use 1. So I hope it's not a duplicate.

  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Clarification needed. 1.The requested number must be on top of stack? What if the stack is not empty after popping the result? 2.Division is integer or floating point? \$\endgroup\$
    – edc65
    Jul 14, 2014 at 15:24
  • \$\begingroup\$ @edc65 1. Yes. It must be on the top of the stack. 2. Integer, floor. 53/ = 1, not 2. \$\endgroup\$
    – Snack
    Jul 15, 2014 at 2:25

1 Answer 1


Javascript, Score = 1663.46768

function X($){S=Math.sqrt;function J(A){return A.join("")}function M(A,B){return A.length<B.length?A:B}function D(q){var w="",e,r,t,y;for(e=9;e>1;e--){r=~~(q/e);t=r*e-q;if(t==0)y=J([G(r),e,"*"]);else y=J([G(r),e,"*",G(-t),"+"]);if(w=="")w=y;w=M(w,y)}return w}function Q(a){var s=~~S(a),d=a-s*s,f=J([G(s),">*",G(d),"+"]),g;s=Math.ceil(S(a));d=s*s-a;g=J([G(s),">*",G(d),"-"]);return M(f,g)}function G(z){var x,c,v,b,n,m;if(z==0)return"22-";if(z==1)return"22/";if(z>1&&z<10)return""+z;if(z>9&&z<19){x=~~(z/2);c=z-x;return J([x,c,"+"])}for(v=9;v>1;v--){b=~~(z/v);if(b>1&&b<10&&b*v==z)return J([v,b,"*"])}n=S(z);if(~~n==n)return J([G(n),">*"]);return M(D(z),Q(z))}return G($)}

This is my attempt for my question, and this is output. Code size is 671, and output size is 1304. Score is 1663.46768 (rounded up to 5 decimal places).

  • \$\begingroup\$ If you can transform your functions (or some of them) to functional form, meaning that you can transform them such that a function like function F(a){return <lots of code>} becomes possible, you can use the ECMAscript 6 syntax F=(a)=><lots of code>. Furthermore, you have if(z==0)return"22-";if(z==1)return"22/";. I think you can compress that to if(z<2)return["22-","22/"][z];. (If z can be negative, add a &&z>=0.) \$\endgroup\$
    – tomsmeding
    Jul 14, 2014 at 6:27
  • \$\begingroup\$ +1 Great job! Golfed a little more and rewrited for EcmaScript 6 your code size is 406. X=$=>(S=Math.sqrt,M=(A,B)=>A.length<B.length?A:B,D=(q,w="",e,r,t,y)=>{for(e=9;e>1;e--)r=~~(q/e),t=q-r*e,y=t?G(r)+e+"*"+G(t)+"+":G(r)+e+"*",w=M(w||y,y);return w}, Q=(a,s=~~S(a))=>M(G(s)+">*"+G(a-s*s)+"+",G(++s)+">*"+G(s*s-a)+"-"), G=(z,v,b)=>{if(z<18)return z<2?"22"+"-/"[z]:z<10?z:"8"+(z-8)+"+";for(v=9;v>1;v--)if((b=~~(z/v))>1&b<10&b*v==z)return""+v+b+"*";return ~~(v=S(z))-v?M(D(z),Q(z)):G(v)+">*"},G($)) \$\endgroup\$
    – edc65
    Jul 15, 2014 at 16:10

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