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Here is Minkowski's question mark function:

It is a strictly increasing and continuous function from the reals to themselves that, among other unusual properties, maps rational numbers to dyadic rationals (those with a power-of-two denominator). Specifically, suppose the continued fraction representation of a rational number \$x\$ is \$[a_0;a_1,\dots,a_n]\$, then $$?(x)=a_0+\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{\left(-1\right)^{i+1}}{2^{a_1+\cdots+a_i-1}}$$ For example, 58/27 has continued fraction representation \$[2;6,1,3]\$, so $$?(58/27)=2+\frac1{2^{6-1}}-\frac1{2^{6+1-1}}+\frac1{2^{6+1+3-1}}=2+2^{-5}-2^{-6}+2^{-9}=\frac{1033}{2^9}$$ so the pair (1033, 9) should be returned in this case. Similarly for 30/73 with expansion \$[0;2,2,3,4]\$: $$?(30/73)=2^{-1}-2^{-3}+2^{-6}-2^{-10}=\frac{399}{2^{10}}$$ and (399, 10) should be returned here. Note that it does not matter whether the form ending in 1 is used or not.

Task

Given a rational number \$x\$, determine \$?(x)=a/2^b\$ as a rational number in lowest terms (so that \$b\$ is a non-negative integer, as small as possible, and \$a\$ is odd unless \$b=0\$) and output \$a\$ and \$b\$ (not \$2^b\$). \$x\$ may be taken in any reasonable format, and if you take a pair of integers you may assume the corresponding fraction is in lowest terms.

This is ; fewest bytes wins.

Test cases

x -> a, b
0/1 -> 0, 0
1/1 -> 1, 0
1/2 -> 1, 1
-1/2 -> -1, 1
2/1 -> 2, 0
1/3 -> 1, 2
1/8 -> 1, 7
2/5 -> 3, 3
8/5 -> 13, 3
58/27 -> 1033, 9
30/73 -> 399, 10
144/89 -> 853, 9
-17/77 -> -767, 13
-17/99 -> -133, 12
355/113 -> 12648447, 22
16000/1 -> 16000, 0
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1
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ In fact, all the definitions of ?(x) I’ve seen only deal with positive numbers. Of course I turned on the negative validation, but I think it’s unnecessary! \$\endgroup\$
    – lesobrod
    May 9, 2023 at 20:45

13 Answers 13

6
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Python, 95 bytes

lambda n,d:g(d-n%d,n%d,1,n//d,0)
g=lambda n,d,s,N,D:d and g(d,n%d,-s,(N<<n//d)+s,D+n//d)or(N,D)

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Rather verbose implementation. Essentially calculates the cf (by Euclidean algo) and converts the terms on the fly.

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5
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Python 3.8, 95 bytes

q=lambda x,y,k=0:y>=2*x>0and q(x,y-x,k+1)or(x and-(-x//y<<(r:=q(-x%y,y))[1])-r[0],x and r[1]+k)

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How it works

Uses the recurrence

\begin{align*} ?(0) &= 0, \\ ?(x) &= \frac{?{\left(\frac{x}{1 - x}\right)}}{2} \quad\text{if }0 < x ≤ \frac12, \\ ?(x) &= ⌈x⌉ - {?(⌈x⌉ - x)}. \end{align*}

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3
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Haskell, 186 bytes

import Data.Ratio
c r=let f=floor r;d=r-f%1 in if d==0 then[f]else f:c(1/d)
m(a:b)=a%1-2*sum[(-1)^i/2^sum(take i b)|i<-[1..length b]]
p x=(numerator x,until((denominator x==).(2^))(1+)0)

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2
  • \$\begingroup\$ Does it work with negative numbers, as in some test cases? \$\endgroup\$
    – lesobrod
    May 9, 2023 at 20:36
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ It does. That is what i used floor for. \$\endgroup\$ May 9, 2023 at 20:43
3
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Wolfram Language (Mathematica), 77 or 124 bytes

(s=Sign@#;{s Numerator@#,Log[2,Denominator@#]}&@MinkowskiQuestionMark@Abs@#)&

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Or without overkill builtin:

(s=Sign@#;c=ContinuedFraction@Abs@#;{s Numerator@#, Log[2,Denominator@#]}&@(r=c[[1]];t=-1;Do[t=-t/2^e;r+=2t,{e,Rest@c}];r))&

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1
  • \$\begingroup\$ 63 \$\endgroup\$
    – att
    May 18, 2023 at 0:18
3
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julia, 111 bytes

Expects a single argument of type Rational{Int64}

This approach traverses the Stern-Brocot tree for \$\mathrm{mod}(p,1)\$, adding \$1/2^k\$ at the \$k\$-th recursion whenever we take a right branch in the tree.

The case where \$p \notin (0, 1]\$ is handled in the default arguments.

m(p,L=[0,1],U=[1,0],q=mod1(p,1),r=p-q,s=0,M=//(L+U...),g=q>=M,l=r+g)=q==M ? (l,s) : m(0,L+g*U,U+L-g*L,q,2l,s+1)

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1
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ I have no idea what happens in this post but here is a 4 byte improvement \$\endgroup\$
    – MarcMush
    May 18, 2023 at 19:19
2
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JavaScript (ES6), 88 bytes

Expects (p)(q) for \$x=p/q\$. Returns [a,b].

This is heavily based on loopy walt's answer.

p=>g=(q,s=p<(b=0)?p/(p=-p):1,a=p/q,d=p%=q,n=q-p)=>d?g(b+=n/d|0,-s,s+=a<<n/d,n%d,d):[a,b]

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2
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PARI/GP, 67 bytes

x->s=0;[(x\1+2*sum(i=2,#r=contfrac(x),(-1)^i/2^s+=r[i]))<<s-=!!s,s]

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2
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Jelly, 28 bytes

Ḋ;%/ƊẠпṖ:/€ḢW+Ṭ€NÐeFƊƲL’ṭḄƲ

A monadic Link that accepts a pair of integers, [numerator, denominator], and yields a pair of integers, [numerator, denominator's exponent].

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How?

Ḋ;%/ƊẠпṖ:/€ḢW+Ṭ€NÐeFƊƲL’ṭḄƲ - Link: pair of integers = [N, D]
      п                     - collect while...
     Ạ                       - ...condition: all truthy - i.e. while no zero present
    Ɗ                        - ...do: last three links as a monad - f(current=[n, d]):
Ḋ                            -          dequeue -> [d]
   /                         -          reduce ([n, d]) by:
  %                          -            modulo -> n%d
 ;                           -          concatenate -> [d, n%d]
        Ṗ                    - pop - remove the final result (with a zero in)
          /€                 - reduce each by:
         :                   -   integer division -> continued fraction part list
                      Ʋ      - last four links as a monad - f(Parts=that):
            Ḣ                -   head -> remove and yield the integer part
             W               -   wrap (the integer part) in a list
                     Ɗ       -   last three links as a monad - f(remaining parts):
               Ṭ€            -     untruth each (e.g. 4 -> [0,0,0,1])
                 NÐe         -     negate those at even indices (the 2nd, 4th, ...)
                    F        -     flatten
              +              -   ([integer part]) add (that) (vectorises) - adds the integer
                                     part to the first one. If none just gets [integer part]
                           Ʋ - last four links as a monad - f(A=that):
                       L     -   length (A)
                        ’    -   decrement -> the denominator's exponent
                          Ḅ  -   convert (A) from base two -> the numerator
                         ṭ   -   tack -> [numerator, denominator's exponent]
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1
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Charcoal, 63 bytes

NθNη≔÷θηζW﹪θη«≔ηθ≔ιη⊞υ⁻÷θη¬υ»F﹪Lυ²⊞⊞Oυ⊖⊟υ¹I⟦⁺×ζX²Συ⍘⭆υ×I﹪κ²ι²Συ

Try it online! Link is to verbose version of code. Explanation:

NθNη

Input the numerator and denominator.

≔÷θηζ

Calculate the integer part of the fraction.

W﹪θη«≔ηθ≔ιη⊞υ⁻÷θη¬υ»

Calculate the rest of the continued fraction, except decrement the first value.

F﹪Lυ²⊞⊞Oυ⊖⊟υ¹

If the fraction has odd length then decrement the last value and append a 1.

I⟦⁺×ζX²Συ⍘⭆υ×I﹪κ²ι²Συ

Transform the fraction into run-length-encoded binary and convert from binary to decimal, adding on the original integer part with an appropriate shift, which is also the second output value.

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1
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Factor + koszul math.continued-fractions, 156 154 bytes

[ dup sgn swap abs 1vector [ dup last ratio? ] [ dup next-approx ] while
unclip -rot cum-sum vneg [ -1^ 2 rot 1 + ^ * ] map-index sum * + >fraction log2 ]

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                      ! -17/99
dup                   ! -17/99 -17/99
sgn                   ! -17/99 -1
swap                  ! -1 -17/99
abs                   ! -1 17/99
1vector               ! -1 V{ 17/99 }
[ dup last ratio? ]   ! -1 V{ 17/99 } [ dup last ratio? ]
[ dup next-approx ]   ! -1 V{ 17/99 } [ dup last ratio? ] [ dup next-approx ]
while                 ! -1 V{ 0 5 1 4 1 2 }
unclip                ! -1 V{ 5 1 4 1 2 } 0
-rot                  ! 0 -1 V{ 5 1 4 1 2 }
cum-sum               ! 0 -1 V{ 5 6 10 11 13 }
vneg                  ! 0 -1 V{ -5 -6 -10 -11 -13 }
[ -1^ 2 rot 1 + ^ * ] ! 0 -1 V{ -5 -6 -10 -11 -13 } [ -1^ 2 rot 1 + ^ * ]
map-index             ! 0 -1 { 1/16 -1/32 1/512 -1/1024 1/4096 }
sum                   ! 0 -1 133/4096
*                     ! 0 -133/4096
+                     ! -133/4096
>fraction             ! -133 4096
log2                  ! -133 12
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1
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Scala 3, 238 186 bytes

Modified from @loopy walt's answer.


\$ \color{black}{\text{In scala, it's weird to mimic `%` `//` of python}} \$

/*
Python's % operator returns a result with the same sign as the divisor, and // rounds towards negative infinity.

In Scala, % and / don't behave the same way. The % operator returns a result with the same sign as the dividend, and / performs truncating division, rounding towards zero.
*/


def pythonMod(a: Int, b: Int): Int = ((a % b) + b) % b

def pythonDiv(a: Int, b: Int): Int = {
  if ((a > 0 && b > 0) || (a < 0 && b < 0)) a / b
  else if (a % b == 0) a / b
  else a / b - 1
}


Golfed version. Attempt this online!

Saved 52 bytes thanks to the comment of @ceilingcat

type T=Int;def f(n:T,d:T)={@annotation.tailrec def g(n:T,d:T,s:T,N:T,D:T):(T,T)=if(d!=0)g(d,n%d,-s,(N<<n/d)+s,D+n/d)else(N,D);val r=(n%d+d)%d;g(d-r,r,1,if(n*d>0|n%d==0)n/d else n/d-1,0)}

Ungolfed version. Attempt this online!

import scala.io.Source
object Main {
  def f(n: Int, d: Int) = {
    @annotation.tailrec
    def g(n: Int, d: Int, s: Int, N: Int, D: Int): (Int, Int) = {
      // println(s"$n $d $s $N $D")
      if (d != 0) g(d, n % d, -s, (N << (n / d)) + s, D + (n / d)) else (N, D);
    }
    def pythonMod(a: Int, b: Int): Int = ((a % b) + b) % b

    def pythonDiv(a: Int, b: Int): Int = {
      if ((a > 0 && b > 0) || (a < 0 && b < 0)) a / b
      else if (a % b == 0) a / b
      else a / b - 1
    }

    val q = pythonDiv(n, d);
    val r = pythonMod(n, d);
    g(d - r, r, 1, q, 0)
  }

  def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
    val lines = Source.stdin.getLines().toList

    for (line <- lines) {
      val Array(i, o) = line.split("->")
      val nums = i.split("/").map(_.trim.toInt)
      val result = f(nums(0), nums(1))
      println(s"${nums.mkString("/")}, $result, $o")
    }
  }
}

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0
0
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Python3, 217 bytes:

C=lambda n,d:[n//d]+C(d,n-d*(n//d))if d else[]
def f(N,d):n=abs(N);c=C(n,d);k=[(c[0],0)]+[(pow(-1,i+1),sum(c[1:i+1])-1)for i in range(1,len(c))];b=max(B for _,B in k);return([1,-1][N<0]*sum(2**(b-B)*N for N,B in k),b)

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0
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Pyth, 46 bytes

M?tH+/GHgH%GH]GJtstKgEE+*hK^2JaF_m^2-Jtsd._tKJ

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Explanation

First we define g(G,H) to find the continued fraction of its input.

M                  # define g(G,H)
 ?tH               # if (H != 1):
    +/GH           #   prepend floor(G/H) to
        gH%GH      #   recurse on g(H, G%H)
                   # else:
             ]G    #   return [G]

Then we compute the function

    KgEE                           # assign K to g applied to two inputs
Jtst                               # assign J to sum(K[:-1]) - 1
                          ._tK     # all prefixes of K[:-1]
                  m                # map on lambda d
                   ^2              #   2 to the power of
                     -J            #   J minus
                       tsd         #   sum(d) - 1
               aF_                 # take the alternating sum
        +                          # add to this
            ^2J                    # 2 ^ j
         *hK                       # times K[0]
                              J    # print(J)
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