# Generate all groupings

Let's define a grouping as a flat list, which is either:

• just 0
• 2 groupings followed by the literal integer 2
• 3 groupings followed by 3
• 4 groupings followed by 4
• etc. (for all integers $$\ \ge 2 \$$)

Note that 1 is not included in this definition, because otherwise groupings could be infinite.

For example, these are valid groupings:

• 0
• 0 0 2
• 0 0 0 3
• 0 0 0 2 2
• 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 4 2 0 2

If it helps, here is a more visual representation of the last two groupings above, using parentheses to show how they're constructed:

(0 ((0 0) 2) 2)
((0 ((0 0 (0 0 2) 3) 0 0 0 4) 2) 0 2)


Given a positive integer n, output all possible groupings which contain exactly n 0s.

For example, for n = 3, there are 3 possible groupings:

• 0 0 0 3
• 0 0 0 2 2
• 0 0 2 0 2

## Test cases

input -> outputs
1 -> [0]
2 -> [0 0 2]
3 -> [0 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 2]
4 -> [0 0 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 4], [0 0 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 3 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 2 0 2]
5 -> [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 4], [0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 3], [0 0 0 0 0 4 2], [0 0 0 0 0 5], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 4], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 3], [0 0 0 0 3 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 4 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 4], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 3], [0 0 0 3 0 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 3 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 4], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2]
6 -> [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 3], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5], [0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4], [0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3], [0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2], [0 0 0 0 0 0 6], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 4], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 0 5], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 4], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 2 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 3 0 3], [0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4], [0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 4 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3], [0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 3 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 4], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 0 5], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 4], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 0 3 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 4], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 2 3 0 0 3], [0 0 0 0 2 3 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 0 4], [0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 0 4 0 0 3], [0 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 4], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 4 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 0 5], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 4], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 2 3 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 0 3 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 4], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 3], [0 0 0 2 0 3 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 4], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 3], [0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4], [0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 3], [0 0 0 3 0 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 2], [0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 3], [0 0 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 3 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 4], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 4 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 0 5], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 3 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 2 3 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 0 3 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 2 3], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 3 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 4], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 0 3 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 0 3 0 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 2 3], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 3 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 4], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 3], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 0 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2], [0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 3], [0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2]

• Sandbox. Brownie points for working out what inspired this challenge. Feb 13, 2022 at 9:02
• "Note that 1 is not included in this definition, because otherwise groupings could be infinite." I think you meant "because otherwise there could be an infinite number of distinct groupings having the same number of 0"?
– Stef
Feb 13, 2022 at 19:46
• The number of groupings is given by A001003. Feb 13, 2022 at 20:17
• @Stef well, I mean both. If 1s were included, then for n=2, the infinite list 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ... would also be considered a valid grouping. Feb 13, 2022 at 20:22
• @Arnauld in particular, this problem is analogous to the interpretation of that sequence, "ordered trees with no vertex of outdegree 1 and having n+1 leaves (called sometimes Schröder trees" Feb 13, 2022 at 20:25

Returns a list of groupings in lexicographic order.

(!0)
0!1=[[]]
n!s=[k:g|k<-[0^n..s],k/=1,g<-(n-0^k)!(s+1-k)]


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The possible groupings can be constructed from left to right if you keep track of two values: the remaining number of 0s to place, and the number of currently open groupings. When all 0s are placed and there is a single open grouping, we have constructed a valid output.

This is implemented by the function (!) which takes the number of 0s as a left argument n and the open groupings as s. At each step we can insert a 0 if n>0 and any integer in [2..s] to close multiple open groupings.

-- main function: (!) with 0 open groupings
(!0)
-- base case: no more 0s to place, a single grouping left
0!1=[[]]
-- k is the number to insert
-- 0^n == if n==0 then 1 else 0
n!s=[k:g|k<-[0^n..s],k/=1,g<-(n-0^k)!(s+1-k)]

• How does it work? Feb 13, 2022 at 12:59
• @ophact Added a short explanation and some comments. If anything is unclear feel free to ask
– ovs
Feb 13, 2022 at 13:20
• why do you need the C preprocessor here? (I noticed the cpp flag in the TIO link) Feb 13, 2022 at 21:38
• @Jonah that is just to put the g= in the header, making the score and code on TIO match with the submission. I don't think there is another way to split name and value of an assignment like that.
– ovs
Feb 13, 2022 at 21:41

# Wolfram Language (Mathematica), version 12.3.1, 44 bytes

Groupings[#,2~Range~#,Length/@#~Level~All&]&


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Yes, Mathematica has a built-in for groupings.

But the version on TIO (Mathematica 12.0.1) gives the wrong result for input 1. The version I'm using (Mathematica 12.3.1) works correctly.

# JavaScript (V8),  77  76 bytes

Prints all groupings as comma-separated strings.

f=(n,s=0,g=0,h=k=>k|n>1?f(k?h(k-1)|n:n+--k,s+[,k+1],g-k):!g&&print(s))=>h(g)


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### Commented

f = (                  // f is a recursive function taking:
n,                   //   n = input
s = 0,               //   s = output 'string' (initially the number 0)
g = 0,               //   g = number of groupings - 1
h = k =>             //   h = helper recursive function taking a counter k
k | n > 1 ?        //     if k is not equal to 0 or n is greater than 1:
f(               //       recursive call to f:
k ?            //         if k is not equal to 0:
h(k - 1)     //           do a recursive call to h with k - 1
| n          //           and pass n unchanged (*)
:              //         else:
n + --k,     //           set k = -1 and decrement n
s + [, k + 1], //         append a comma followed by k + 1 to s
g - k          //         subtract k from g
//         (this actually increments g if k = -1)
)                //       end of recursive call
:                  //     else:
!g && print(s)   //       print s if g = 0
) => h(g)              // initial call to h with k = g


(*) This relies on the fact that h() will always eventually return a zero'ish value. And that's why we use !g && print(s) rather than g || print(s).

# Charcoal, 47 bytes

Ｎθ⊞υ⟦⁰⟧ＦυＦ⁺…⁰‹№ι⁰θ…·²⁻ＬιΣι⊞υ⁺ι⟦κ⟧ＩΦυ⁼⁼№ι⁰θ⁻ＬιΣι


Try it online! Link is to verbose version of code. Explanation: A simplification of @ovs's method, where the number of 0s to place is simply the desired number of 0s minus the current number of 0s, and the number of open groupings is the length minus the sum.

Ｎθ


Input the desired number of 0s.

⊞υ⟦⁰⟧Ｆυ


Start a breadth first search with a single 0. (I can't use an empty list because Sum([]) isn't 0 in Charcoal.)

Ｆ⁺…⁰‹№ι⁰θ…·²⁻ＬιΣι


Loop over the concatenation of two ranges, one from 0 to whether more 0s are needed (so either an empty range or a range containing just 0), one from 2 to the difference between the length and the sum inclusive.

⊞υ⁺ι⟦κ⟧


Append the value to the grouping and push it to the search list.

ＩΦυ⁼⁼№ι⁰θ⁻ＬιΣι


Output those groupings with one grouping and the correct number of 0s.

# Core Maude, 209 + 15 = 224 bytes

mod G is inc LIST{Nat}*(op size to{_]). ops({_})([_]): Nat ~> Nat . var A B
N :[Nat]. eq{N}=[N]N . eq 0 1 = 0 . eq[0]= nil . eq[s N]= 0[N]. crl A B N =>
A{A]B s sd(N,{A])if{A]> 1 /\{A]< N /\ A B =[{A B]]. endm


To get the list of groupings for $$\n\$$, run the following Maude command with the $$\G\$$ module loaded.

search{𝑛}=>* A .


The groupings will be the listed assignments to $$\A\$$. So, for example, for $$\n = 3\$$ run

search{3}=>* A .


(The bytes of this command — minus the bytes to specify $$\n\$$ — have been included in the total.)

### Example Session

Maude> search{1}=>* A .
search in G : {1} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 4 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0

No more solutions.
states: 1  rewrites: 15 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
Maude> search{2}=>* A .
search in G : {2} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 4 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 2

No more solutions.
states: 1  rewrites: 128 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
Maude> search{3}=>* A .
search in G : {3} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 5 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 3

Solution 2 (state 1)
states: 2  rewrites: 181 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 2 0 2

Solution 3 (state 2)
states: 3  rewrites: 218 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 2 2

No more solutions.
states: 3  rewrites: 1467 in 1ms cpu (1ms real) (1467000 rewrites/second)
Maude> search{4}=>* A .
search in G : {4} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 6 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 4

-- SNIP --

Solution 11 (state 10)
states: 11  rewrites: 4520 in 3ms cpu (3ms real) (1506666 rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 2 2 2

No more solutions.
states: 11  rewrites: 15508 in 12ms cpu (12ms real) (1292333 rewrites/second)
Maude> search{5}=>* A .
search in G : {5} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 7 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 0 5

-- SNIP --

Solution 45 (state 44)
states: 45  rewrites: 72386 in 42ms cpu (41ms real) (1723476 rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2

No more solutions.
states: 45  rewrites: 149258 in 59ms cpu (58ms real) (2529796 rewrites/second)
Maude> search{6}=>* A .
search in G : {6} =>* A .

Solution 1 (state 0)
states: 1  rewrites: 8 in 0ms cpu (0ms real) (~ rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

-- SNIP --

Solution 197 (state 196)
states: 197  rewrites: 853311 in 216ms cpu (215ms real) (3950513 rewrites/second)
A --> 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2

No more solutions.
states: 197  rewrites: 1340298 in 329ms cpu (328ms real) (4073854 rewrites/second)


### Ungolfed

mod G is
inc LIST{Nat} * (op size to {_]) .

ops ({_}) ([_]) : Nat ~> Nat .

var A B N : [Nat] .

eq {N} = [N] N .
eq 0 1 = 0 .

eq [0] = nil .
eq [s N] = 0 [N] .

crl A B N => A {A] B s sd(N, {A]) if {A] > 1 /\ {A] < N /\ A B = [{A B]] .
endm


This solution uses Maude's rewriting feature, where Maude will search using a rewrite system to find all solutions to an problem of the form $$\t_1 \to_R^* t_2\$$, or in this case, $$\\{n\} \to_G^* A\$$, where $$\\to_G^*\$$ means zero or more applications of rules in $$\G\$$, and $$\A\$$ is a variable (so essentially any term). The single rule picks a run of zeros and groups them, so Maude will explore every way of grouping starting from $$\\{n\} \approx_G 0 \; 0 \, \cdots \, 0 \; n\$$.

We use odd function names ({_}, [_], and {_]) to take advantage of Maude's odd tokenization rules. {_} creates the initial grouping; [_] produces a list of zeroes; {_] is the renamed size function for lists.

# Python, 100 bytes

f=lambda n:[k+j+R for i in range(1,n)for*j,J in f(i)for k in f(n-i)for R in[[J,2],[J+1]][:i]]or[[0]]

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### How?

One big recursive list comprehension. Conceptually: Cut off the tree's lefttmost branch (from the root node) and do recursion on both bits. Technicality: The right bit is the original tree with the left bit removed, while the left bit discards the root branch so as not to violate the no nonbranching nodes requirement. IOW, the left bit hangs one level lower than the right bit. Except when the original tree had only two root branches. Then both hang low.

# Curry (PAKCS), 63 bytes

(!0)
0!1=[]
n!s=anyOf[k:n!(s+1-k)|k<-[2..s]]?n>0&>0:(n-1)!(s+1)


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• The ^ operator is not supported by the Curry version on TIO.
• An expression in Curry can be non-deterministic, i.e. having multiple values at the same time. Here I define a non-deterministic function f, whose return values are all the possible groupings.

# Curry (PAKCS), 68 bytes

(([]:iterate g[0])!!)
g a=a++[0,2]
g(a++[b])|b>1=g a++[b]?a++[0,b+1]


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Another non-deterministic function that returns all the possible groupings at the same time.

# JavaScript (Node.js), 86 84 bytes

f=(n,x=[0],i=0)=>n?x.flatMap((_,j)=>j>i?[]:f(n-!j,[...u=x,j+=!!j],i-j+1)):i-1?[]:[u]


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• For the record, my solution was 366 bytes. Good job ;) Feb 13, 2022 at 13:30

# Python3, 205 bytes:

f=lambda x:''.join(f(i)if list==type(i)else'0'for i in x)+str(l:=len(x))*(l>1)
def s(n,c=[]):
if n:
for i in[c+[0],*[[],[[0,c]]][j:=len(c)>1],*[[],[[c,0]]][j]]:
yield from s(n-1,i)
else:yield f(c)


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