# Objective

Simulate an edge-triggered D Flip-Flop.

# What is D Flip-Flop?

A D flip-flop is an electronic digital device that outputs an inputted data (abbr. D) with synchronization to a clock (abbr. CLK). Usually CLK is a uniform pulse, but in this challenge, CLK may be not uniform.

# Input

A bitstring with length $$\n\$$ will be given as CLK and another bitstring with length $$\n-1\$$ will be given as D. A bit represents the state of an input during a unit time (tick). CLK leads D by half a tick.

# Output

The output (abbr. Q) is a bitstring with same length and starting timepoint as D. If CLK doesn't start with 01, the starting bit of Q is implementation-defined. Q is updated upon a rising moment of CLK to the bit of D at the time. On the other times, Q retains its state.

# Examples

The red line indicates a rising moment of CLK.

• Example 1: • Example 2: # Rules

• If CLK isn't a tick longer than D, the entire challenge falls into don't care situation.
• Though defined as bitstrings, the actual elements of CLK, D, and Q doesn't matter. In this case, if a string is not binary (that is, contains a third character), the entire challenge falls into don't care situation.
• I haven't heard of most of these terms so I don't know what the challenge is asking for without following the link to the Wikipedia page. Please add the the relevant information to the challenge body itself. – xnor Mar 23 at 4:07
• @xnor the Output section actually specifies the output here – my pronoun is monicareinstate Mar 23 at 4:59
• With the well-illustrated examples, I think I now understand what the output section is asking for. Thinking of the bit strings as time series, whenever the CLK bit changes from 0 to 1, the output bit Q is set to the current value of the bit D. In all other cases, Q stays unchanged from what it was last. – xnor Mar 23 at 5:51
• The starting bit of Q is implementation-defined. Only if CLK does not start with 01? Or does the starting bit never matter? – Jitse Mar 23 at 8:29
• @GalenIvanov Yes. – Dannyu NDos Mar 23 at 19:56

# 05AB1E, 1514 13 bytes

εINTS+èÆi©ë®Θ


First input is $$\D\$$, second input is $$\CLK\$$.
Output $$\Q\$$ as a list of 0s and 1s.

Explanation:

ε            # Map over the (implicit) input-list D:
N          #  Push the current map-index
TS        #  Push 10 as digit-list: [1,0]
+       #  Add them to the index: [index+1, index]
I    è      #  Index both of them into the second input CLK
Æi    #  If they are [1,0]:
©   #   Store the current map-value in variable ® (without popping)
ë    #  Else:
®   #   Push variable ®
Θ  #   And check whether it is exactly 1 (1 if truthy, 0 if falsey)
#   (which is necessary, because ® is -1 by default)
# (after which the list is output implicitly as result)


# J, 27 23 bytes

-4 bytes thanks to Bubbler!

;@(<@({.\);.1~1,2</\}.)


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CLK is the left argument; D is the right one. When CLK doesn't start with 01, the starting bits are the same as the first bit of D.

                       ;.1  - cut
] - the right argument (D)
(          )             - where
2 /\               - the previous element
[              - of the left argument (CLK)
<                 - is smaller than the next one
}.                   - drop
1                     - the first item
1,                      - prepend with 1 (for cutting)
(     )      - for each cut group
\$        - make a list
#           - of the same length as the group
{.      - with elements same as the first one
<@         - and box the list
;                         - unbox the sublists and flatten them
[:                          - function composition


# K (oK), 27 23bytes

-4 bytes thanks to ngn!

{,/&\'|\'(0,&1_>':x)_y}


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• – Bubbler Mar 23 at 23:39
• @Bubbler Great, thanks! – Galen Ivanov Mar 24 at 4:47
• {(#x)#*x}' -> &\'|\' – ngn Mar 25 at 19:14
• @ngn Thank you, that's very interesting! – Galen Ivanov Mar 25 at 19:24

# APL (Dyalog Extended), 16 bytes

∊⊣⊣\¨⍤⊂⍨1,1↓2</⊢


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A dyadic tacit function whose right arg is CLK and left arg is D. Accepts both as Boolean vectors. The starting bit of Q follows that of D.

### How it works

∊⊣⊣\¨⍤⊂⍨1,1↓2</⊢  ⍝ Input: left←D, right←CLK
2</⊢  ⍝ Detect rising edges of CLK
1,1↓      ⍝ Treat the very first tick as a rising edge
⊣    ⊂⍨          ⍝ Partition D into regions where
⍝   each rising edge marks the start of each region
⊣\¨⍤            ⍝ On each region, overwrite all elements with the first one
∊                 ⍝ Enlist; form a simple vector


# JavaScript (ES6),  40  39 bytes

Takes input as (clock)(data), where clock and data are arrays of binary digits.

C=>D=>D.map(c=>C[i]<C[++i]?p=c:p,i=p=0)


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# Io, 56 bytes

The space before := is mandatory, otherwise the colon would be part of the undefined identifier.

Argh. Just 1 byte away from Java!

method(c,d,q :=0;d map(i,x,q=if(c at(i)<c at(i+1),x,q)))


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# Explanation

method(c, d,                // Take 2 operands, c and d
q := 0                  // Set the flip flop to 0
d map (i, x,            // Map every item in d
// With the index i and the
// current item x
q = \               // Set the current flip-flop as:
if(c at(i)      // If the clock at the same index
< c at(i + 1),  // Is less than the clock at the next index?
// I.e. the clock goes from 0 to 1
x,          // Set the flip-flop as the current item x
q           // Otherwise, make an identity function.
)               // The assigned operand result is automatically
)                       // returned to the map loop, so no
)                           // explicit reference of the flip-flop in the map.


# Python 3.8, 57 bytes

lambda C,D,x=0:[x:=[x,d][a<b]for d,a,b in zip(D,C,C[1:])]


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Input: 2 lists of 0s and 1s, the first list C represents the clock line, and the second list D represents the data line.
Output: The list Q representing the state of the flip-flop through time.

### Explanation

• for d,a,b in zip(D,C,C[1:]) iterates over the lines, where d is the current data bit, a is the previous clock bit, and b is the current clock bit
• x stores the previous state of the flip-flop
• x:=[x,d][a<b] updates the state of the flip-flop: if a<b is 1 (edge-rise moment), then the state is updated to the current data bit d. Otherwise, the state remains the same as previous state.
• Why is there "(pre-release)" behind "Python 3.8"? Python 3.8 was released months ago. – Mast Mar 23 at 15:05
• @Mast true, I just copied the title from TIO and didn't think much about it – Surculose Sputum Mar 23 at 15:12

# Java 8, 55 bytes

C->D->{int i=0,p=0;for(int c:D)D[i]=C[i]<C[++i]?p=c:p;}


Port of @Arnauld's JavaScript answer, so make sure to upvote him!!

Input as two integer-arrays. Stores the result ($$\Q\$$) in input $$\D\$$ instead of returning a new list to save bytes.

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Explanation:

C->D->{                  // Method with two integer-arrays as parameter and no return-type
int i=0,               //  Index-integer, starting at 0
p=0;               //  Previous integer, starting at 0
for(int c:D)           //  Loop over the digits of input D:
D[i]=                //   Set the i'th value of array D to:
C[i]            //    If the i'th value of array C
<C[++i]?    //    is smaller than the i+1'th value of array C
//    (thus C[i] == 0 and C[i+1] == 1)
p=c //     Use the current digit c,
//     and also replace p with this digit
:    //    Else (they're [0,0], [1,0] or [1,1]):
p;} //     Use digit p instead


# Charcoal, 22 bytes

≔0ζＦＬη«Ｆ‹§θι§θ⊕ι≔§ηιζζ


Try it online! Link is to verbose version of code. Explanation:

≔0ζ


Initialise Q.

ＦＬη«


Loop over the elements of D.

Ｆ‹§θι§θ⊕ι


Did CLK transition from 0 to 1?

≔§ηιζ


If so then set Q to D.

ζ


Output Q.

# C (gcc), 80 67 bytes

t;f(c,d,n)int*c,*d;{for(t=*c++;n--;d++)*c++=t^*c&&(t^=1)?*d:c[-1];}


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Inputs the clock and data as int arrays along with the length of the data array.
Returns the output in the clock array starting at one past the beginning.