## Background Examples include any square, rhombus, or a kite-like shape. Rectangles or parallelograms in general are not tangential.

Given the four vertices of a quadrilateral (as Cartesian coordinates), determine if it is tangential.

## Input & output

For input, it is allowed to use any format that unambiguously specifies the four vertices' coordinates (eight real or floating-point numbers). You can assume the following on the input:

• The points specify a simple convex quadrilateral, i.e. all internal angles are strictly less than 180 degrees, and the edges meet only at the vertices.
• The points are specified in counter-clockwise order (or the other way around if you want).

For output, you can use one of the following:

• Truthy/falsy values as defined by your language of choice (swapping the two is allowed), or
• Two consistent values for true/false respectively.

It is acceptable if your code produces wrong output due to floating-point inaccuracies.

## Test cases

### Tangential

(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 1), (1, 0)  # unit square
(-2, 0), (0, 1), (2, 0), (0, -1)  # rhombus
(1, -2), (-2, -1), (-1, 2), (4, 2)  # kite
(0, 0), (50, 120), (50, 0), (32, -24)  # all four sides different


### Not tangential

(0, 0), (0, 1), (2, 1), (2, 0)  # rectangle
(0, 0), (1, 1), (3, 1), (2, 0)  # parallelogram


## Scoring & winning criterion

Standard rules apply. The shortest code in bytes wins.

• Is complex number input allowed?
– xnor
Jan 6 '20 at 0:12
• @xnor Yes, it's allowed. Jan 6 '20 at 0:13

# MATL, 11 10 bytes

5:)d|2e!sd


Input is a vector of four complex numbers. Output is 0 (which is falsy) if tangential, or nonzero (which is truthy) if not tangential.

### Explanation

The code computes the difference between sums of lengths of opposite sides. This difference is zero if and only if the quatrilateral is tangential.

5:   % Range [1 2 3 4 5]
)    % Implicit input: complex vector of length 4. Index into it modularly.
% This repeats the first vertex after the last
d    % Consecutive differences
|    % Absolute value, element-wise
2e   % Reshape as a 2-column matrix, in column-major order
!    % Transpose
s    % Sum of each column. Gives a vector of length 2
d    % Consecutive difference


# Python 3, 47 bytes

f=lambda l,i=3:i+1and abs(l[i]-l[i-1])-f(l,i-1)


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Take complex number input. Outputs as Truthy/Falsey swapped. Test cases from Noodle9.

48 bytes

lambda a,b,c,d:A(a-b)+A(c-d)-A(b-c)-A(d-a)
A=abs


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# Python 3, 89 $$\\cdots\$$ 59 55 bytes

lambda l:sum((-1)**i*abs(l[i-1]-l[i])for i in range(4))


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A list of vertices as complex numbers is passed in. The lengths of the sides $$\(a, b, c, d)\$$ are calculated and uses $$\a+c=b+d\$$ for a tangential quadrilateral. Returns's a falsy value (0) for a tangential or a truthy value (nonzero) otherwise.

# Jelly, 9 8 bytes

ṁ5ạƝŒœ§E


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## Explanation

5ị€       | Modular index 1,2,3,4,5 into list
ạƝ     | Absolute difference of neighbouring pairs
Œœ   | Split into odd and even indices
§  | Sum of inner lists
E | Equal


A monadic link taking a list of complex coordinates and returning 1 for tangential and 0 for not.

Based on @LuisMendo’s MATL answer so be sure to upvote that one!

Thanks to @JonathanAllan for saving a byte!

• 5ị€ can be ṁ5. Jan 6 '20 at 21:59

# JavaScript (ES6), 74 bytes

Takes input as a list of coordinate pairs. Returns $$\0\$$ (falsy) for tangential or a non-zero value (truthy) for non-tangential.

a=>(g=_=>Math.hypot(([x,y]=a[i],[X,Y]=a[++i&3],x-X),y-Y))(i=0)-g()+g()-g()


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• I added a test case where all four sides have different lengths, and your code seems to fail on it. Jan 6 '20 at 2:16
• @Bubbler Now fixed. My optimization was silly. Jan 6 '20 at 2:18

# APL (Dyalog Unicode), 17 11 bytesSBCS

-6 bytes thanks to Bubbler

outputs 1 if tangential, 0 if not

0=-/|2-/5⍴⎕


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Explanation:

0=-/|2-/5⍴⎕

⎕ take 4 complex numbers as evaluated input
5⍴   reshape to 5
2-/     difference between each pair of numbers
|        absolute value
-/         alternating sum
0=           the quadrilateral is tangential if the final result is 0


=/+/⍉2 2⍴|2-/5⍴⎕


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Explanation:

=/+/⍉2 2⍴|2-/5⍴⎕

⎕  take 4 complex numbers as evaluated input
5⍴    reshape to 5
2-/      find the difference between each pair of numbers
|         absolute value
2 2⍴          reshape to 2x2 matrix
⍉              transpose
+/                sum the rows
=/                  are they both equal?

• 11 bytes using alternating sum -/. Jan 15 '20 at 0:12
• Thanks, @Bubbler I didn't knkow about that Jan 15 '20 at 9:31

# Wolfram Language (Mathematica), 24 bytes

Returns Sphere if the quadrilateral is tangential, Insphere if it is not.

Head@Insphere@Polygon@#&


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# Wolfram Language (Mathematica), 38 bytes

Returns True if the quadrilateral is tangential, False if it is not.

0=={1,-1,1,-1}.Norm/@(#-RotateLeft@#)&


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# 05AB1E, 9 bytes

ĆüαnOtιOË


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Port of Nick Kennedy's Jelly answer. It turned out pretty short, despite 05AB1E's lack of complex numbers.