12
\$\begingroup\$

Introduction

Putting all positive numbers in its regular order (1, 2, 3, ...) is a bit boring, isn't it? So here is a series of challenges around permutations (reshuffelings) of all positive numbers.

The first challenge in this series is to output a(n) for a given n as input, where a(n) is A064413, also known as the EKG sequence because the graph of its values resembles an electrocardiogram (hence the "How does this feel" reference). Interesting properties of this sequence are that all positive integers appear exactly once. Another notable feature is that all primes occur in increasing order.

Graph of the first 80 values of the EKG sequence

Task

Given an integer input n, output a(n).

\$a(n)\$ is defined as:

  • \$a(1) = 1; a(2) = 2;\$
  • for \$n > 2\$, \$a(n)\$ is the smallest number not already used which shares a factor with \$a(n-1)\$

Note: 1-based indexing is assumed here; you may use 0-based indexing, so \$a(0) = 1; a(1) = 2\$, etc. Please mention this in your answer if you choose to use this.

Test cases

Input | Output
--------------
1     | 1
5     | 3
20    | 11
50    | 49
123   | 132
1234  | 1296
3000  | 3122
9999  | 10374

Rules

  • Input and output are integers (your program should at least support input and output in the range of 1 up to 32767)
  • Invalid input (floats, strings, negative values, etc.) may lead to unpredicted output, errors or (un)defined behaviour.
  • Default I/O rules apply.
  • Default loopholes are forbidden.
  • This is , so the shortest answers in bytes wins

Final note

See this related PP&CG question.

\$\endgroup\$
  • \$\begingroup\$ @Giuseppe: this is not a duplicate. The other question isn't about the sequence itself, but a slice of the sequence ("the n first terms of the sequence are greater than n" to be exact). This is a more "pure sequence" version of the same sequence (and thus another challenge). By the way: sandboxed here. \$\endgroup\$ – agtoever Mar 10 at 18:46
  • 10
    \$\begingroup\$ Seems like for most, if not all, languages it would be a trivial change from counting greater than n to indexing into at n or tailing. For example Husk in the linked challenge is #>¹↑¡§ḟȯ←⌋→`-Nḣ2 and here !¡§ḟȯ←⌋→`-Nḣ2 would do (Try it). The definition of "duplicate" is not "is exactly the same as". I'll leave it to others to decide since I don't want to hammer this closed as I may have missed something. \$\endgroup\$ – Jonathan Allan Mar 10 at 19:15
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ Maybe you should specify that a(n) shares a factor other than 1 with a(n-1), since every number shares 1 as a factor. Also, may my answer be '2-indexed', where a(2) is 1, a(3) is 2, and so on? \$\endgroup\$ – Embodiment of Ignorance Mar 11 at 3:34
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ This would be good for one fast code completion... \$\endgroup\$ – RosLuP Mar 12 at 16:10

10 Answers 10

2
\$\begingroup\$

05AB1E, 25 bytes

1ˆ2ˆF∞.Δ¯yå≠¯θy¿2@*}ˆ}¯¨θ

0-indexed

Try it online or Output the first \$n\$ items.

Explanation:

1ˆ2ˆ            # Add both 1 and 2 to the global_array
F               # Loop the (implicit) input amount of times:
 ∞.Δ            #  Get the first 1-indexed value resulting in truthy for the following:
    ¯yå≠        #   Where this value is not in the global_array yet
              * #   AND:
        ¯θ ¿    #   Where the greatest common divisor of the last item of the global_array
          y @2  #   and the current value, is larger than or equal to 2
   }ˆ           #  After a new value has been found: add it to the global_array
}¯              # After the loop: push the global_array
  ¨θ            # Then remove the last element, and then take the new last element
                # (which is output implicitly as result)
\$\endgroup\$
7
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Haskell, 66 65 64 bytes

f n|n<3=n|m<-n-1=[k|k<-[1..],k`gcd`f m>1,all(/=k)$f<$>[1..m]]!!0

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
5
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Haskell, 60 bytes

((1:2#[3..])!!)
n#l|x:_<-[y|y<-l,gcd y n>1]=n:x#filter(/=x)l

Try it online!

Zero-indexed; could save four bytes if series started with 2 (kinda (-1)-indexed, but without value for -1 being defined). Builds the infinite list by lazily maintaining the list of unused numbers.

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  • \$\begingroup\$ Might be worth mentioning that you could make this considerably less inefficient if you import Data.List and use delete x instead of filter(/=x). If this needs to work for large arguments, such an optimization will quickly become necessary. \$\endgroup\$ – dfeuer Mar 12 at 21:36
  • \$\begingroup\$ Indeed, using delete is the reasonable thing to do here, but in code-golf we don't care. I sometimes mention more efficient variants, when the difference is spectacular, or otherwise interesting. Here, it is not too bad: TIO can compute all test cases in less than 10 seconds. \$\endgroup\$ – Christian Sievers Mar 12 at 22:55
4
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Python 2, 104 bytes

This uses 0-based indexing.

from fractions import*
l=[1,2]
exec'i=3\nwhile gcd(i,l[-1])<2or i in l:i+=1\nl+=i,;'*input()
print l[-2]

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
1
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Ruby, 86 bytes

a=->(n){n<3?n:1.step{|i|return i if a[n-1].gcd(i)!=1&&(0...n).map(&a).all?{|j|j!=i}}}

This runs forever for inputs as low as 10, though.


Here's a version with memoization with 102 bytes that runs in acceptable time:

m={};a=->(n){n<3?n:m[n]||1.step{|i|return m[n]=i if a[n-1].gcd(i)!=1&&(0...n).map(&a).all?{|j|j!=i}}}
\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ can you save a byte with gcd >1 instead of !=1? \$\endgroup\$ – Daniel Widdis Mar 21 at 3:06
1
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MACHINE LANGUAGE(X86, 32 bit)+C language library malloc()/free()functions, bytes 325

00000750  51                push ecx
00000751  52                push edx
00000752  8B44240C          mov eax,[esp+0xc]
00000756  8B4C2410          mov ecx,[esp+0x10]
0000075A  3D00000000        cmp eax,0x0
0000075F  7414              jz 0x775
00000761  81F900000000      cmp ecx,0x0
00000767  740C              jz 0x775
00000769  39C8              cmp eax,ecx
0000076B  7710              ja 0x77d
0000076D  89C2              mov edx,eax
0000076F  89C8              mov eax,ecx
00000771  89D1              mov ecx,edx
00000773  EB08              jmp short 0x77d
00000775  B8FFFFFFFF        mov eax,0xffffffff
0000077A  F9                stc
0000077B  EB11              jmp short 0x78e
0000077D  31D2              xor edx,edx
0000077F  F7F1              div ecx
00000781  89C8              mov eax,ecx
00000783  89D1              mov ecx,edx
00000785  81FA00000000      cmp edx,0x0
0000078B  77F0              ja 0x77d
0000078D  F8                clc
0000078E  5A                pop edx
0000078F  59                pop ecx
00000790  C20800            ret 0x8

00000793  53                push ebx
00000794  56                push esi
00000795  57                push edi
00000796  55                push ebp
00000797  55                push ebp
00000798  8B442418          mov eax,[esp+0x18]
0000079C  3D02000000        cmp eax,0x2
000007A1  7641              jna 0x7e4
000007A3  3DA0860100        cmp eax,0x186a0
000007A8  7757              ja 0x801
000007AA  40                inc eax
000007AB  89C7              mov edi,eax
000007AD  C1E003            shl eax,0x3
000007B0  50                push eax
000007B1  E80E050000        call 0xcc4
000007B6  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
000007BC  3D00000000        cmp eax,0x0
000007C1  743E              jz 0x801
000007C3  89C5              mov ebp,eax
000007C5  89F8              mov eax,edi
000007C7  C1E002            shl eax,0x2
000007CA  890424            mov [esp],eax
000007CD  50                push eax
000007CE  E8F1040000        call 0xcc4
000007D3  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
000007D9  3D00000000        cmp eax,0x0
000007DE  7415              jz 0x7f5
000007E0  89C3              mov ebx,eax
000007E2  EB28              jmp short 0x80c
000007E4  E9A3000000        jmp 0x88c
000007E9  53                push ebx
000007EA  E8E5040000        call 0xcd4
000007EF  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
000007F5  55                push ebp
000007F6  E8D9040000        call 0xcd4
000007FB  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
00000801  B8FFFFFFFF        mov eax,0xffffffff
00000806  F9                stc
00000807  E981000000        jmp 0x88d
0000080C C60301            mov byte [ebx],0x1
0000080F  C6430101          mov byte [ebx+0x1],0x1
00000813  C7450001000000    mov dword [ebp+0x0],0x1
0000081A  C7450402000000    mov dword [ebp+0x4],0x2
00000821  B902000000        mov ecx,0x2
00000826  BE01000000        mov esi,0x1
0000082B  B802000000        mov eax,0x2
00000830  8B542418          mov edx,[esp+0x18]
00000834  4A                dec edx
00000835  C6040300          mov byte [ebx+eax],0x0
00000839  40                inc eax
0000083A  3B0424            cmp eax,[esp]
0000083D  72F6              jc 0x835
0000083F  BF02000000        mov edi,0x2
00000844  81C701000000      add edi,0x1
0000084A  3B3C24            cmp edi,[esp]
0000084D  779A              ja 0x7e9
0000084F  803C3B01          cmp byte [ebx+edi],0x1
00000853  74EF              jz 0x844
00000855  57                push edi
00000856  51                push ecx
00000857  E8F4FEFFFF        call 0x750
0000085C  3D01000000        cmp eax,0x1
00000861  76E1              jna 0x844
00000863  46                inc esi
00000864  897CB500          mov [ebp+esi*4+0x0],edi
00000868  89F9              mov ecx,edi
0000086A  C6043B01          mov byte [ebx+edi],0x1
0000086E  39D6              cmp esi,edx
00000870  72CD              jc 0x83f
00000872  53                push ebx
00000873  E85C040000        call 0xcd4
00000878  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
0000087E  55                push ebp
0000087F  E850040000        call 0xcd4
00000884  81C404000000      add esp,0x4
0000088A  89F8              mov eax,edi
0000088C  F8                clc
0000088D  5D                pop ebp
0000088E  5D                pop ebp
0000088F  5F                pop edi
00000890  5E                pop esi
00000891  5B                pop ebx
00000892  C20400            ret 0x4
00000895 

Above gcd and the function... This below assembly code generate the functions and the test program:

; nasmw -fobj  this.asm
; bcc32 -v  this.obj
section _DATA use32 public class=DATA

global _main
extern _printf
extern _malloc
extern _free

dspace dd 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0

fmt db "%u " , 13, 10, 0, 0
fmt1 db "%u %u" , 13, 10, 0, 0

IgcdIIuIIIuIIIuIn db "gcd(%u, %u)=%u" , 13, 10, 0, 0
IfunIIuIIIuIn db "fun(%u)=%u" , 13, 10, 0, 0

section _TEXT use32 public class=CODE

gcd:      
      push    ecx
      push    edx
      mov     eax,  dword[esp+  12]
      mov     ecx,  dword[esp+  16]
      cmp     eax,  0
      je      .e
      cmp     ecx,  0
      je      .e
      cmp     eax,  ecx
      ja      .1
      mov     edx,  eax
      mov     eax,  ecx
      mov     ecx,  edx
      jmp     short  .1
.e:   mov     eax,  -1
      stc
      jmp     short  .z
.1:   xor     edx,  edx
      div     ecx
      mov     eax,  ecx
      mov     ecx,  edx
      cmp     edx,  0
      ja      .1            ; r<c
.2:   clc
.z:       
      pop     edx
      pop     ecx
      ret     8

fun:      
      push    ebx
      push    esi
      push    edi

   push    ebp    
      push    ebp
      mov     eax,  dword[esp+  24]
      cmp     eax,  2
      jbe     .a
      cmp     eax,  100000
      ja      .e
      inc     eax
      mov     edi,  eax
      shl     eax,  3
      push    eax
      call    _malloc
      add     esp,  4
      cmp     eax,  0
      je      .e
      mov     ebp,  eax
      mov     eax,  edi
      shl     eax,  2
      mov     dword[esp+  0],  eax
      push    eax
      call    _malloc
      add     esp,  4
      cmp     eax,  0
      je      .0
      mov     ebx,  eax
      jmp     short  .1
.a:   jmp     .y
.b:   push    ebx
      call    _free
      add     esp,  4
.0:   push    ebp
      call    _free
      add     esp,  4
.e:   mov     eax,  -1
      stc
      jmp     .z
.1:   mov     byte[ebx],  1
      mov     byte[ebx+1],  1
      mov     dword[ebp],  1
      mov     dword[ebp+4],  2
      mov     ecx,  2
      mov     esi,  1
      mov     eax,  2
      mov     edx,  dword[esp+  24]
      dec     edx
.2:   mov     byte[ebx+eax],  0
      inc     eax
      cmp     eax,  dword[esp+  0]
      jb      .2
.3:   mov     edi,  2
.4:   add     edi,  1
      cmp     edi,  dword[esp+  0]
      ja      .b
      cmp     byte[ebx+edi],  1
      je      .4
      push    edi
      push    ecx
      call    gcd
      cmp     eax,  1
      jbe     .4
      inc     esi
      mov     [ebp+esi*4],  edi
      mov     ecx,  edi
      mov     byte[ebx+edi],  1
      cmp     esi,  edx
      jb      .3
      push    ebx
      call    _free
      add     esp,  4
      push    ebp
      call    _free
      add     esp,  4
      mov     eax,  edi
.y:   clc
.z:       
      pop     ebp
      pop     ebp
      pop     edi
      pop     esi
      pop     ebx
      ret     4


_main:    
      pushad

      push    6
      push    3
      call    gcd
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    6
      push    3
      push    IgcdIIuIIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  16
      popad
      push    2
      push    2
      call    gcd
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    2
      push    2
      push    IgcdIIuIIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  16
      popad

      push    1
      push    1
      call    gcd
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    1
      push    1
      push    IgcdIIuIIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  16
      popad
      push    0
      push    1
      call    gcd
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    0
      push    1
      push    IgcdIIuIIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  16
      popad
      push    0
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    0
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    1
      call    fun
      pushadpush    eax
      push    1
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    2
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    2
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    3
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    3
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    4
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    4
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    5
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    5
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    123
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    123
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    1234
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    1234
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    3000
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    3000
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    9999
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    9999
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      push    99999
      call    fun
      pushad
      push    eax
      push    99999
      push    IfunIIuIIIuIn  
      call    _printf
      add     esp,  12
      popad
      popad
      mov     eax,  0
      ret

the results:

gcd(3, 6)=3
gcd(2, 2)=2
gcd(1, 1)=1
gcd(1, 0)=4294967295
fun(0)=0
fun(1)=1
fun(2)=2
fun(3)=4
fun(4)=6
fun(5)=3
fun(123)=132
fun(1234)=1296
fun(3000)=3122
fun(9999)=10374
fun(99999)=102709

It is possible bugs and wrong copy past...

\$\endgroup\$
1
\$\begingroup\$

Perl 6, 84 80 73 69 50 49 bytes

(0-indexed)

{(1,2,{+(1...all @_[*-1]gcd*>1,*∉@_)}...*)[$_]}

Thanks to this answer for some tricks.

Thanks to ASCII-only for shaving a byte.

\$\endgroup\$
  • 2
    \$\begingroup\$ Have you tried using the sequence operator ...? It makes sequence stuff like this a lot easier. For example, your my@a=1,2;push @a,operation while condition can be 1,2,{operation}...condition. With a few other golfs, this can be as low as 49 bytes \$\endgroup\$ – Jo King Mar 21 at 3:37
  • \$\begingroup\$ Not sure if that'd work here because the next term depends on all of the previous terms. \$\endgroup\$ – bb94 Mar 21 at 5:18
  • \$\begingroup\$ 67 (0-indexing is allowed though, so this could be 65) \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Mar 21 at 5:38
  • \$\begingroup\$ Derp, didn't come to my mind that there was .first. \$\endgroup\$ – bb94 Mar 21 at 5:39
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ O_o well that was a big jump. it'd be nice if you could link to TIO though \$\endgroup\$ – ASCII-only Mar 21 at 5:44
0
\$\begingroup\$

APL(NARS), chars 119, bytes 238

∇r←a w;i;j;v
r←w⋄→0×⍳w≤2⋄i←2⋄r←⍳2⋄v←1,1,(2×w)⍴0
j←¯1+v⍳0
j+←1⋄→3×⍳1=j⊃v⋄→3×⍳∼1<j∨i⊃r⋄r←r,j⋄i+←1⋄v[j]←1⋄→2×⍳w>i
r←i⊃r
∇

this test it takes 1m:49s here:

  a¨1 5 20 50 123 1234 3000
1 3 11 49 132 1296 3122
\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Java (JDK), 161 155 152 151 bytes

Saved a byte by switching int[] tracking to leverage the existing BigInteger!

n->{int j,k=n;for(var b=java.math.BigInteger.ONE;0<--n;b=b.setBit(k=j))for(j=1;b.testBit(++j)|b.valueOf(j).gcd(b.valueOf(k)).intValue()<2;);;return k;}

Try it online!

\$\endgroup\$
0
\$\begingroup\$

Gaia, 27 bytes

2┅@⟨:1⟪Ė₌0⟪;)d;d&1D⟫?⟫#+⟩ₓE

Try it online!

1-based indexing.

Runs rather slowly, as it tries each integer until it finds a(n).

2┅				| push [1 2]
  @				| push n
   ⟨			 ⟩ₓ	| do n times:
    :				| dup
     1⟪		      ⟫#	| and find the first 1 integer i where the following results in a truthy value:
       Ė₌	     ?		| is i an Ėlement of the list? Also push an extra copy of the arguments
	 0			| if so, give falsy result, so try the next integer
	  ⟪	    ⟫		| else do the following:
	   ;)d			| get divisors of a(n-1)
	      ;d		| get divisors of i
		&1D		| set intersect and remove the first element (which is always 1)
				| this yields an empty set if no divisors are shared (falsy, so try next integer)
				| or a non-empty set (truthy, so returns i = a(n))
			+	| and concatenate to list (end loop).
			   E	| finally, Extract the nth element (n taken implicitly)
\$\endgroup\$

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