# Binning in time

The task in this challenge is to put elements of an array into time bins. The input will be a non-decreasing array of positive integers representing the time of events, and an integer which represents the size of each bin. Let us start with an example. We call the input array A and the output array O.

A = [1,1,1,2,7,10] and bin_size = 2.

O = [4,0,0,1,1].


Why? With a bin_size = 2, we'll have the following intervals: (0,2], (2,4], (4,6], (6,8], (8,10], where four items (1,1,1,2) are within the first interval (0,2], none in the second and third intervals, one 7 in the interval (6,8], and one 10 in the interval (8,10].

Your code should consider every interval of length bin_size starting from 0 and count how many numbers in A there are in each. You should always include the right hand end of an interval in a bin so in the example above 2 is included in the count of 4. Your code should run in linear time in the sum of the lengths of the input and output.

More examples:

A = [1,2,7,12,15]  and bin_size = 5.

O = [2, 1, 2].

A = [1,2,7,12,15]  and bin_size = 3.

O = [2,0,1,1,1].


You can assume that input and output can be given in any format you find convenient. You can use any languages and libraries you like.

• Are outputs with trailing 0s allowed? So returning [2,0,1,1,1,0] instead of [2,0,1,1,1]? – Kevin Cruijssen Mar 30 '18 at 14:10
• No trailing zeros please. – user9206 Mar 30 '18 at 14:11
• What about situations where max array value is not a multiple of bin_size, should we really handle these? It seems that most answers do, but if so, it would be nice to add a test case for this scenario to prevent confusion. – Kirill L. Mar 31 '18 at 8:40
• @KirillL. Yes they should be handled too. – user9206 Mar 31 '18 at 14:28
• @GPS 0 is not a positive integer. This isn’t an accident :) – user9206 Apr 1 '18 at 19:25

# R, 48 bytes

function(n,s)table(cut(n,0:ceiling(max(n)/s)*s))


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Once again, table and cutting to a factor do the trick for the binning. Outputs a named vector where the names are the intervals, in interval notation, for instance, (0,5].

EDIT: Revert back to earlier version that works when s doesn't divide n.

• I really don't R, but on TIO this appears to output a format you [most likely do not] find convenient without the table part. – the default. Mar 30 '18 at 11:38
• @someone that's exactly why it's there. cut splits the vector into factors with levels given by the intervals, and table counts the occurrences of each unique value in its input. – Giuseppe Mar 30 '18 at 11:41
• @someone ah, I see, I misunderstood your comment. No, I think that wouldn't be valid since we need the counts of each bin. – Giuseppe Mar 30 '18 at 12:03
• Not fully tested, but I think you can save a couple bytes reaplacing 0:ceiling(max(n)/s)*s with seq(0,max(n)+s-1,s). It works at least for the two samples in the question. – Gregor Thomas Mar 30 '18 at 14:24
• @Gregor Hmm if that does work 1:max(n/s+1)*s-s is another improvement since the two are equivalent – Giuseppe Mar 30 '18 at 14:37

# Octave, 36 bytes

@(A,b)histc(A,1:b:A(end)+b)(1:end-1)


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Out hunting Easter eggs and making a bonfire. I'll add an explanation when I have the time.

# Perl 5-a-i, 32 28 bytes

Give count after the -i option. Give each input element on a separate line on STDIN

$G[~-$_/$^I]--}{say-$_ for@G


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• This is impressive. – user9206 Mar 30 '18 at 12:00

# Python 2, 62 bytes

I,s=input()
B=*(~-I[-1]/s+1)
for i in I:B[~-i/s]+=1
print B


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• First of all: nice answer, I've already +1-ed it (and created a port in Java, because it's quite a bit shorter than what I had). Trailing zeroes aren't allowed however (just asked OP), so I[-1]/s+1 should be ~-I[-1]/s+1 instead. – Kevin Cruijssen Mar 30 '18 at 14:12
• @KevinCruijssen Thanks for notice! – Dead Possum Apr 1 '18 at 15:58

# 05AB1E, 18 bytes

θs/Å0¹vDyI/î<©è>®ǝ


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• I don't know 05AB1E that well, but this seems to call A.count max(A), so run time isn't linear in len(A) + len(O). Is that correct or did I get something wrong? – Dennis Mar 30 '18 at 15:22
• @Dennis count would be O(max(A)*max(A))... so it's quadratic on the maximum of A... OP specified it had to be linear in terms of... what exactly? – Magic Octopus Urn Mar 30 '18 at 16:29
• @MagicOctopusUrn Your code should run in linear time in the sum of the lengths of the input and output, according to the latest revision. – Dennis Mar 30 '18 at 16:31
• @Dennis that seems rather arbitrary. – Magic Octopus Urn Mar 30 '18 at 16:33
• @MagicOctopusUrn It’s the only sensible definition for linear time for this question I think. – user9206 Mar 31 '18 at 14:33

# APL+WIN, 23 bytes

Prompts for screen input of bins then vector of integers:

+⌿<\v∘.≤b×⍳⌈⌈/(v←⎕)÷b←⎕


Explanation:

⎕ Prompt for input

⌈⌈/(v←⎕)÷b←⎕ divide the integers by bin size, take maximum and round up for number of bins

b×⍳ take number of bins from previous step and create a vector of bin upper boundaries

v∘.≤ apply outer product to generate boolean matrix where elements of vector ≤ boundaries

<\ switch off all 1's after first 1 in each row to filter multiple bin allocations

+⌿ sum columns for the result


# C++ (gcc), 90 83 bytes

auto f(auto i,int s){typeof i j;for(auto v:i)--v/=s,j.resize(v+1),j[v]++;return j;}


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# Java 8, 75 bytes

a->b->{var r=new int[~-a[a.length-1]/b+1];for(int i:a)r[~-i/b]++;return r;}


Explanation:

Try it online.

a->b->{          // Method with integer-array and integer parameters and no return-type
var r=new int[~-a[a.length-1]/b+1];
//  Result integer-array of size ((last_item-1)/bin_length)+1
for(int i:a)   //  Loop over the input-array
r[~-i/b]++;  //   Increase the value at index (i+1)/bin_length by 1
return r;}     //  Return the result-array


# Ruby, 60 bytes

->a,b{(b...a[-1]+b).step(b).map{|i|a.count{|n|n<=i&&n>i-b}}}


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# JavaScript (ES6), 60 bytes / O(len(a)+max(a)/n)

Saved 5 bytes thanks to @Neil

Takes input in currying syntax (a)(n).

a=>n=>[...a.map(x=>o[x=~-x/n|0]=-~o[x],o=[])&&o].map(n=>~~n)


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Or just 43 bytes / O(len(a)) if empty elements are allowed.

• [...o].map(n=>n|0) gets the first output from the second solution in fewer bytes. – Neil Mar 30 '18 at 20:25
• @Neil Not sure why I went for something so convoluted. :-/ – Arnauld Mar 30 '18 at 21:01

l!n=l#[n,2*n..]
[]#_=[]
l#(b:i)|h<-length\$takeWhile(<=b)l=h:drop h l#i


Whoops, this shorter one isn't linear but quadratic;

l!n=l#[n,2*n..]
[]#_=[]
l#(b:i)=sum[1|a<-l,a<=b]:[a|a<-l,a>b]#i


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# Pyth, 23 22 bytes

Jm/tdeQhQK*]ZheJhXRK1J


Try it here

Jm/tdeQhQK*]ZheJhXRK1J
Jm/tdeQhQ                 Find the bin for each time and save them as J.
K*]ZheJ          Create empty bins.
XRK1J    Increment the bins for each time within them.
h         Take the first (because mapping returned copies).


# Ruby, 53 50 bytes

Edit: -3 bytes by iamnotmaynard.

->a,b{(0..~-a.max/b).map{|i|a.count{|x|~-x/b==i}}}


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• This does not work when a.max is not a multiple of b (e.g. f[[1,1,1,2,7,10],3] => [4, 0, 1] but should give [4, 0, 2]). I had tried the same approach. – Reinstate Monica -- notmaynard Mar 30 '18 at 22:29
• (or rather [4, 0, 1, 1]) – Reinstate Monica -- notmaynard Mar 30 '18 at 22:40
• Well, this is fixable by switching to a float max range value, but I'll also ask OP to clarify this in the task description. – Kirill L. Mar 31 '18 at 8:34
• 50 bytes – Reinstate Monica -- notmaynard Mar 31 '18 at 12:29
• Nice, even better, thanks. – Kirill L. Mar 31 '18 at 14:57

This puzzle is essentially a Count-sort. We don't know the length of output without going through input first.

# C (clang), 53 bytes

i,j;f(*A,l,b,*O){for(j=0;j<l;O[(A[j++]+b-1)/b-1]++);}


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This solution takes following parameters:
A input array
l length of A
b bin_size
O storage for Output. Must be sufficient length
and returns output in O.

This solution has a handicap: it doesn't return the length of output array O, and so caller doesn't know how much to print.

Following version overcomes that handicap:

# C (clang), 79 bytes

i,j,k;f(*A,l,b,*O,*m){for(k=j=0;j<l;O[i=(A[j++]+b-1)/b-1]++,k=k>i?k:i);*m=++k;}


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It takes an additional parameter m and returns length of O in it. It cost me 26 bytes.

# C (gcc), 1029089 86 bytes

#define P!printf("%d ",k)
i,j,k;f(s){for(i=s;~scanf("%d",&j);k++)for(;j>i;i+=s)k=P;P;}


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Thanks to Kevin Cruijssen for slashing off 12 bytes, and ceilingcat for another 4 bytes!

• 90 bytes by using for-loops, removing the int, and changing ==1 to >0. – Kevin Cruijssen Mar 30 '18 at 12:39
• You're welcome. Btw, just a note, it's currently invalid (just like my now deleted Java answer was). It's required to run in O(n) time, so you can't have any nested for-loops.. (Your C++ answer seems fine, though. So I've +1-ed that one. :) ) – Kevin Cruijssen Mar 30 '18 at 13:27
• It is still O(n). The inner loop will always print a value, and we only print (max value + 1) / binsize values in total. – G. Sliepen Mar 30 '18 at 13:49
• Hmm, but isn't the outer loop already O(n) by looping over the input items. Even if the inner loop would only loop 2 times it's already above O(n). Or am I misunderstanding something.. I must admit O-times aren't really my expertise.. – Kevin Cruijssen Mar 30 '18 at 13:52
• But the inner loop doesn't iterate over all input elements, it only iterates over however many output values it needs to print to "catch up" to the position corresponding to the latest input element. If the input vector consists of lots of duplicates or values that differ less than the bin size, the inner loop will not perform any iterations at all. On the other hand, if the input vector is very sparse, then the inner loop will perform more iterations, printing 0's. So to be correct, the code runs in O ((number of input elements) + (last element / bin size)) time. This is still linear. – G. Sliepen Mar 30 '18 at 14:19