Given the integer representation of three elements in GF(2^64), give the product of the first two elements over GF(2^64) with the reducing polynomial defined as the polynomial m such that m(x) = x^64 + n(x), where n is the polynomial representation of the third element.

You want me to what?

A finite field GF(p^q), where p is a prime and q is a natural number, contains p^q elements. (GF stands for Galois Field, which is another name for a finite field.) The elements of this finite field can be given many interpretations, but the two most common are as the integers between 0 and p^q-1, and as the polynomials with term coefficients between 0 and p-1 and degree less than q. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the base-p integer interpretations and the polynomial interpretations, from a one-to-one mapping between digits and term coefficients:

Integer interpretation (binary) | Polynomial interpretation (given x)
0                               | 0
1                               | 1
10                              | x
11                              | x + 1
100                             | x^2
101                             | x^2 + 1
1101                            | x^3 + x^2 + 1

Finite field arithmetic makes the most intuitive sense under the polynomial interpretation, but for brevity, the integer interpretation is used, and operations are described according to the integer representations of the finite field elements involved.

Addition in GF(p^q), like polynomial addition, operates with no carryover. Each digit in the sum is equal to the sum of digits in the addends, mod p. Likewise, subtraction in GF(p^q), like polynomial subtraction, is borrowless, with each digit in the difference being the difference in the corresponding digit in the minuend and subtrahend, mod p. If p = 2, both carryless addition and borrowless subtraction are equivalent to a bitwise XOR.

Multiplication in GF(p^q) relies on (but is not) polynomial multiplication, but with each term coefficient reduced mod p. If the factors are interpreted as integers rather than as polynomials, the operation can be implemented like long multiplication, but with summation of intermediate terms done without carry, as with finite field addition:

   * 1101
^ 1111

Multiplication in GF(p^q) also relies on a reducing polynomial, an irreducible polynomial with term coefficients in the set of integers between 0 and p-1, degree q, and leading coefficient 1 (and thus corresponding to an element in GF(p^(q+1))). Irreducible, in this context, means that it is not equal to any reduced polynomial product, as described above, of any other polynomials with term coefficients in the set of integers between 0 and p-1.

Last, multiplication in GF(p^q) relies on polynomial division, but with each term coefficient reduced mod p. Like reduced polynomial multiplication, this operation can be done directly on the integer representation by doing long division, but with borrowless subtraction rather than subtraction with borrow:

11111 / 10001001
      ^ 11111
       ^ 11111

Now, for the actual description of multiplication in GF(p^q).

First, the carryless product of the factors is calculated, as described above, keeping all digits in the product. Then, the remainder of the carryless division of this carryless product and the reducing polynomial (as interpreted as the integer interpretation of an element of GF(p^(q+1))) is taken. This remainder is the final product.


Given 3 64-bit words A, B, and C, return pmod(pmul(A, B), C+1<<64)), where pmul is the carryless multiplication operation as described above, and pmod is the remainder of the carryless division operation as described above. C + 1<<64 can be assumed to correspond to an element in GF(2^65) that in turn represents an irreducible polynomial.

As with most code golf challenges, standard loopholes apply, and shortest program wins.

Test cases

Each test case is represented in four hexadecimal numbers, with the first three being the three arguments A, B, and C, as described above, and the fourth being the expected return value. (All values were calculated by Nemo, an open-source package for Julia that provides support for finite fields, among other things.)

0x0000000000000000 0x0000000000000000 0x000000000000001B 0x0000000000000000
0x0000000080000000 0x0000000080000000 0x000000000000001B 0x4000000000000000
0x0000000100000000 0x0000000100000000 0x000000000000001B 0x000000000000001B
0x0000000200000000 0x0000000200000000 0x000000000000001B 0x000000000000006C
0x0000000000000001 0x0000000000000001 0x702414004010004F 0x0000000000000002
0x0000000080000000 0x0000000100000000 0x702414004010004F 0x8000000000000000
0x0000000F00000000 0x0000000F00000000 0x702414004010004F 0x686D881284A01126
0x0000208000000000 0x0080000000000002 0x702414004010004F 0x870AF102748F8A93


Here is a Stack Snippet to generate both a regular leaderboard and an overview of winners by language, copied from here:

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  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ I think I'll have to read this four or five times to fully understand it, but one question that immediately popped into my mind: In the Task you mention "Given 3 64-bit words", but in the test cases you use "four hexadecimal numbers". What would be alternative appropriate input format/type besides the hexadecimal one you give in the Test cases? I'm a bit confused by the term "words". \$\endgroup\$ Mar 23 '18 at 15:54
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ "Word" in this context means the unit of information a computer is able to process at once, which, for computers of this generation, is 8 bytes. The test cases are in hexadecimal because that's how most programming languages represent numbers which are intended to be interpreted bitwise. The challenge itself is written to be agnostic to input form, so you can just use a 64-bit integer type, or use arrays or structs of ints. \$\endgroup\$ Mar 23 '18 at 16:00
  • \$\begingroup\$ So the immediate question is: can we use length 64 strings of 0s and 1s as input \$\endgroup\$
    – Ton Hospel
    Mar 23 '18 at 16:05
  • \$\begingroup\$ Go ahead if you want to. As I said, it's agnostic to input form. \$\endgroup\$ Mar 23 '18 at 16:10
  • 1
    \$\begingroup\$ For input 0x0000208000000000 0x0080000000000002 0x702414004010004F I get 0x870af102748f8a93, not 0x870A3202748F8A93 \$\endgroup\$
    – Ton Hospel
    Mar 24 '18 at 9:02

Perl 5 -p, 51 bytes

$\=$'*($\>>63)^$\<<1^$`*($&<<$_&1)for-63..!/ .* /}{

Try it online!

I originally thought this would be hard for perl, but this isn't too bad. All the $s of course still hurt for arithmetic challenges..


APL (Dyalog Unicode), 39 36 bytesSBCS


Try it online!

-3 bytes thanks to @ngn.

A recursive inline operator (dop). You can assign it to f and use it as a(m f)b.

A port of orlp's Python answer, but using bit arrays instead of integers. Dyalog APL has neither 64-bit integers nor bitwise ops, but can simulate them pretty well using array ops.

How it works

{×≢⍵:(⍺×⊃⌽⍵)≠((⍺⍺×⊃⍺)≠1↓⍺,0)∇¯1↓⍵⋄0}  ⍝ ⍺←A, ⍵←B, ⍺⍺←M
{×≢⍵:                            ⋄ }  ⍝ If B has at least one bit,
                            ∇         ⍝   Recursive call with M fixed with...
                      1↓⍺,0           ⍝     A shifted left once
                     ≠                ⍝     XORed with
              (⍺⍺×⊃⍺)                 ⍝     M × highest bit of A
             (             )          ⍝     as left arg, and
                             ¯1↓⍵     ⍝     B shifted right once as right arg
     (⍺×⊃⌽⍵)≠                         ⍝   XOR the result with A × LSB of B
                                  0   ⍝ Otherwise, return a zero,
                                      ⍝ which is equivalent to 64 zero bits

The single zero is returned only on recursion. Then it becomes the right arg of (⍺×⊃⌽⍵)≠, and it acts exactly like a vector of 64 zeros (since (⍺×⊃⌽⍵) evaluates to a 64-length vector).


Python 2, 57 bytes

f=lambda a,b,m:a*b and b%2*a^f(a*2%2**64^(a>>63)*m,b/2,m)

I really tried to golf this in Rust, but the language is just not suitable for golfing. So here it is in Python.


MMIX, 36 bytes (9 instrs)

00000000: e3030000 76040100 3f010101 70ff0003  ẉ¤¡¡v¥¢¡?¢¢¢p”¡¤
00000010: 3b000001 c6030304 c60000ff 5b01fffa  ;¡¡¢İ¤¤¥İ¡¡”[¢”«
00000020: f8040000                             ẏ¥¡¡

Disassembled and commented

ffm SET  $3,0           // r = 0
0H  ZSOD $4,$1,$0       // loop: t0 = B & 1? A : 0
    SRU  $1,$1,1        // B >>= 1
    ZSN  $255,$0,$3     // t1 = A >> 63? C : 0
    SLU  $0,$0,1        // A <<= 1
    XOR  $3,$3,$4       // r ^= t0
    XOR  $0,$0,$255     // A ^= t1
    PBNZ $1,0B          // if(B) goto loop
    POP  4,0            // return r

Russian peasant multiplication. Surprisingly simple! I think this is the first time MMIX has tied for shortest.


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