2 added 145 characters in body
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Pyth, 99 7 bytes

Thanks to @Maltysen for saving 2 bytes!

m.Eclmlc.Bd8

Test suiteTest suite

Basically just ceil(len(bin(d)) / 8) forConverts every character d inof the input to it's binary representation and then splits this into chunks of length 8. OutputsThe number of those chunks is then the values as listamount of bytes needed to encode that character.

Pyth, 9 bytes

m.Ecl.Bd8

Test suite

Basically just ceil(len(bin(d)) / 8) for every character d in the input. Outputs the values as list.

Pyth, 9 7 bytes

Thanks to @Maltysen for saving 2 bytes!

mlc.Bd8

Test suite

Converts every character of the input to it's binary representation and then splits this into chunks of length 8. The number of those chunks is then the amount of bytes needed to encode that character.

1
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Pyth, 9 bytes

m.Ecl.Bd8

Test suite

Basically just ceil(len(bin(d)) / 8) for every character d in the input. Outputs the values as list.