6 deleted 4 characters in body
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g=->a{s=Matht=s=Math::PI/18E4
t=1+d=r=c=0d=r=c=0
a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}
0.upto(36E4){|i|b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose
m,n=b
if n.min>=f=0
l=[m.max-x=m.min,n.max].max
a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-w=n[j])*(x+l-v=m[j])*(x-v)*w)**2}
(1E-9>q=f/l**8)&&(c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?c=9E9:0;c+=1;d=i)
q<t&&r=i&&t=q;endq<t&&(r=i)&&t=q;end}
c<101&&a[1]?c<1?'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3:'unknown'}
g=->a{s=Math::PI/18E4
t=1+d=r=c=0
a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}
0.upto(36E4){|i|b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose
m,n=b
if n.min>=f=0
l=[m.max-x=m.min,n.max].max
a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-w=n[j])*(x+l-v=m[j])*(x-v)*w)**2}
(1E-9>q=f/l**8)&&(c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?c=9E9:0;c+=1;d=i)
q<t&&r=i&&t=q;end}
c<101&&a[1]?c<1?'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3:'unknown'}
->a{t=s=Math::PI/18E4
d=r=c=0
a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}
0.upto(36E4){|i|b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose
m,n=b
if n.min>=f=0
l=[m.max-x=m.min,n.max].max
a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-w=n[j])*(x+l-v=m[j])*(x-v)*w)**2}
(1E-9>q=f/l**8)&&(c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?c=9E9:0;c+=1;d=i)
q<t&&(r=i)&&t=q;end}
c<101&&a[1]?c<1?'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3:'unknown'}
5 added 489 characters in body
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Rev 1: Ruby, 354 bytes

further golfing thanks to blutorange.

g=->a{s=Math::PI/18E4
t=1+d=r=c=0
a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}
0.upto(36E4){|i|b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose
m,n=b
if n.min>=f=0
l=[m.max-x=m.min,n.max].max
a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-w=n[j])*(x+l-v=m[j])*(x-v)*w)**2}
(1E-9>q=f/l**8)&&(c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?c=9E9:0;c+=1;d=i)
q<t&&r=i&&t=q;end}
c<101&&a[1]?c<1?'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3:'unknown'}

Rev 1: Ruby, 354 bytes

further golfing thanks to blutorange.

g=->a{s=Math::PI/18E4
t=1+d=r=c=0
a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}
0.upto(36E4){|i|b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose
m,n=b
if n.min>=f=0
l=[m.max-x=m.min,n.max].max
a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-w=n[j])*(x+l-v=m[j])*(x-v)*w)**2}
(1E-9>q=f/l**8)&&(c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?c=9E9:0;c+=1;d=i)
q<t&&r=i&&t=q;end}
c<101&&a[1]?c<1?'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3:'unknown'}
4 deleted 5 characters in body
source | link
g=->(a){                                                            #take an array of complex numbers as input
  s=Math::PI/18E4                                                   #step size PI/180000
  t=1                                                               #best fit found so far
  d=r=c=0                                                           #angles of (d) last valid result, (r) best fit; c= hit counter
  a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}                                                #move shape so that first point coincides with origin
  (0..36E4).each{|i|                                                #0..360000
    b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose             #rotate each element by dividing by unit vector of angle i*s, convert to array... 
    m=b[0]                                                          #...transpose array [[x1,y1]..[xn,yn]] to [[x1..xn],[y1..yn]]...
    n=b[1]                                                          #...and assign to variables m and n 
    x=m.min                                                         #find leftmost point
    if n.min>=0                                                     #if all points are above x axis
       l=[m.max-x,n.max].max                                        #find the sidelength of smallest square in which they will fit
       f=0                                                          #f= accumulator for errors. For each point
       a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-n[j])*(x+l-m[j])*(x-m[j])*n[j])**2}   #...add to f the product of the squared distances squared from each side of the smallest square containing all points
       q=f/l**8                                                     #q=normalized#q= f normalized with respect to the sidelength.
       if q<1E-9                                                    #consider a hit if <1E-9
         c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?(c=9E9):0                          #if at least one point is already found, and the difference between this hit and the last exceeds+/-1 deg (mod 90), set c to a high value
         c+=1                                                       #increment hit count by 1 (this catches infinitely varible cases)
         d=i                                                        #store the current hit in d
       end  
       if q<t                                                       #if current fit is better than previous one
        r=i                                                         #store the new angle
        t=q                                                         #and revise t to the new best fit.
       end             
    end
  }
  c>100||a.size<2?'unknown':c<1? 'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3           #calculate and return value, taking special care of case where single point given.
}
#ambiguous
puts g.call([Complex(0,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2)])

#impossible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(3,1),Complex(4,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(2,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,2),Complex(0,3)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(2,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(2,2),Complex(-1,1)])

#possible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.3,0.3),Complex(0.6,0.6)]) #(should return 45)
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.1,0.2),Complex(0.2,0.4)]) #(should return appx 63.435 (the real value is arctan(2)))
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,1),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,4),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,4),Complex(4,1),Complex(4,3)])
g=->(a){                                                            #take an array of complex numbers as input
  s=Math::PI/18E4                                                   #step size PI/180000
  t=1                                                               #best fit found so far
  d=r=c=0                                                           #angles of (d) last valid result, (r) best fit; c= hit counter
  a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}                                                #move shape so that first point coincides with origin
  (0..36E4).each{|i|                                                #0..360000
    b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose             #rotate each element by dividing by unit vector of angle i*s, convert to array... 
    m=b[0]                                                          #...transpose array [[x1,y1]..[xn,yn]] to [[x1..xn],[y1..yn]]...
    n=b[1]                                                          #...and assign to variables m and n 
    x=m.min                                                         #find leftmost point
    if n.min>=0                                                     #if all points are above x axis
       l=[m.max-x,n.max].max                                        #find the sidelength of smallest square in which they will fit
       f=0                                                          #f= accumulator for errors. For each point
       a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-n[j])*(x+l-m[j])*(x-m[j])*n[j])**2}   #...add to f the product of the squared distances squared from each side of the smallest square containing all points
       q=f/l**8                                                     #q=normalized with respect to the sidelength.
       if q<1E-9                                                    #consider a hit if <1E-9
         c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?(c=9E9):0                          #if at least one point is already found, and the difference between this hit and the last exceeds+/-1 deg (mod 90), set c to a high value
         c+=1                                                       #increment hit count by 1 (this catches infinitely varible cases)
         d=i                                                        #store the current hit in d
       end  
       if q<t                                                       #if current fit is better than previous one
        r=i                                                         #store the new angle
        t=q                                                         #and revise t to the new best fit.
       end             
    end
  }
  c>100||a.size<2?'unknown':c<1? 'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3           #calculate and return value, taking special care of case where single point given.
}
#ambiguous
puts g.call([Complex(0,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2)])

#impossible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(3,1),Complex(4,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(2,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,2),Complex(0,3)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(2,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(2,2),Complex(-1,1)])

#possible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.3,0.3),Complex(0.6,0.6)]) #(should return 45)
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.1,0.2),Complex(0.2,0.4)]) #(should return appx 63.435 (the real value is arctan(2)))
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,1),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,4),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,4),Complex(4,1),Complex(4,3)])
g=->(a){                                                            #take an array of complex numbers as input
  s=Math::PI/18E4                                                   #step size PI/180000
  t=1                                                               #best fit found so far
  d=r=c=0                                                           #angles of (d) last valid result, (r) best fit; c= hit counter
  a=a.map{|e|e-a[0]}                                                #move shape so that first point coincides with origin
  (0..36E4).each{|i|                                                #0..360000
    b=a.map{|e|(e/Complex.polar(1,i*s)).rect}.transpose             #rotate each element by dividing by unit vector of angle i*s, convert to array... 
    m=b[0]                                                          #...transpose array [[x1,y1]..[xn,yn]] to [[x1..xn],[y1..yn]]...
    n=b[1]                                                          #...and assign to variables m and n 
    x=m.min                                                         #find leftmost point
    if n.min>=0                                                     #if all points are above x axis
       l=[m.max-x,n.max].max                                        #find the sidelength of smallest square in which they will fit
       f=0                                                          #f= accumulator for errors. For each point
       a.each_index{|j|f+=((l-n[j])*(x+l-m[j])*(x-m[j])*n[j])**2}   #...add to f the product of the squared distances from each side of the smallest square containing all points
       q=f/l**8                                                     #q= f normalized with respect to the sidelength.
       if q<1E-9                                                    #consider a hit if <1E-9
         c>0&&(i-d)%9E4%89E3>1E3?(c=9E9):0                          #if at least one point is already found, and the difference between this hit and the last exceeds+/-1 deg (mod 90), set c to a high value
         c+=1                                                       #increment hit count by 1 (this catches infinitely varible cases)
         d=i                                                        #store the current hit in d
       end  
       if q<t                                                       #if current fit is better than previous one
        r=i                                                         #store the new angle
        t=q                                                         #and revise t to the new best fit.
       end             
    end
  }
  c>100||a.size<2?'unknown':c<1? 'impossible':r%9E4/1.0E3           #calculate and return value, taking special care of case where single point given.
}
#ambiguous
puts g.call([Complex(0,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2)])

#impossible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(3,1),Complex(4,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0),Complex(1,1)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,3),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,3),Complex(3,1),Complex(3,2),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(2,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,2),Complex(0,3)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(2,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(2,2),Complex(-1,1)])

#possible
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(1,0),Complex(2,0)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.3,0.3),Complex(0.6,0.6)]) #(should return 45)
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0.1,0.2),Complex(0.2,0.4)]) #(should return appx 63.435 (the real value is arctan(2)))
puts g.call([Complex(0,0),Complex(0,1),Complex(2,1),Complex(2,2)])
puts g.call([Complex(0,1),Complex(0,2),Complex(1,0),Complex(1,4),Complex(2,0),Complex(2,4),Complex(4,1),Complex(4,3)])
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2 deleted 20 characters in body
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