3 added 773 characters in body
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J, 64 63 bytes

rplc((_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ');~"1'cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x')"0

How it works:

With _2]\ I rearrange the string 'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ' into a 12-row column in order to fit the shape of the other string.

,. adds 'x' to each character of the 'cghjsuCGHJSU' string and makes a 12 row by 2 columns array

;~"1' makes a list of boxed pairs of the above, "1 - rank 1 - apply to each row.

┌──┬──┐
│cx│ĉ │
├──┼──┤
│gx│ĝ │
├──┼──┤
│hx│ĥ │
├──┼──┤
│jx│ĵ │
├──┼──┤
│sx│ŝ │
├──┼──┤
│ux│ŭ │
├──┼──┤
│Cx│Ĉ │
├──┼──┤
│Gx│Ĝ │
├──┼──┤
│Hx│Ĥ │
├──┼──┤
│Jx│Ĵ │
├──┼──┤
│Sx│Ŝ │
├──┼──┤
│Ux│Ŭ │
└──┴──┘

rplc uses these boxed items to replace each occurrence of the left boxed item from a pair with the right one.

Try it online!

J, 64 63 bytes

rplc((_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ');~"1'cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x')"0

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J, 64 63 bytes

rplc((_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ');~"1'cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x')"0

How it works:

With _2]\ I rearrange the string 'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ' into a 12-row column in order to fit the shape of the other string.

,. adds 'x' to each character of the 'cghjsuCGHJSU' string and makes a 12 row by 2 columns array

;~"1' makes a list of boxed pairs of the above, "1 - rank 1 - apply to each row.

┌──┬──┐
│cx│ĉ │
├──┼──┤
│gx│ĝ │
├──┼──┤
│hx│ĥ │
├──┼──┤
│jx│ĵ │
├──┼──┤
│sx│ŝ │
├──┼──┤
│ux│ŭ │
├──┼──┤
│Cx│Ĉ │
├──┼──┤
│Gx│Ĝ │
├──┼──┤
│Hx│Ĥ │
├──┼──┤
│Jx│Ĵ │
├──┼──┤
│Sx│Ŝ │
├──┼──┤
│Ux│Ŭ │
└──┴──┘

rplc uses these boxed items to replace each occurrence of the left boxed item from a pair with the right one.

Try it online!

2 added 18 characters in body
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J, 6464 63 bytes

rplc(('cghjsuCGHJSU'_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ');~"1'cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x');"1(_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ'))"0

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J, 64 bytes

rplc(('cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x');"1(_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ'))"0

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J, 64 63 bytes

rplc((_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ');~"1'cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x')"0

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1
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J, 64 bytes

rplc(('cghjsuCGHJSU',.'x');"1(_2]\'ĉĝĥĵŝŭĈĜĤĴŜŬ'))"0

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