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Husk, 17 bytes

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ

Prints a positive integer if the graph is bipartite, 0 if not. Try it online!

Explanation

This is a brute force approach: iterate through all subsets S of vertices, and see whether all edges in the graph are between S and its complement.

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ  Implicit input: binary matrix M.
                Π  Cartesian product; result is X.
                   Elements of X are binary lists representing subsets of vertices.
                   If M contains an all-0 row, the corresponding vertex is never chosen,
                   but it is irrelevant anyway, since it has no neighbors.
                   All-1 rows do not occur, as the graph is simple.
      ṠM           For each list S in X:
              Ṁf   Filter each row of M by S, keeping the bits at the truthy indices of S,
        S  fm¬     then filter the result by the element-wise negation of S,
         ȯD        and concatenate the resulting matrix to itself.
                   Now we have, for each subset S, a matrix containing the edges
                   from S to its complement, counted twice.
§V                 1-based index of the first matrix
  ¤=               that equals M
    ṁΣ             by the sum of all rows, i.e. total number of 1s.
                   Implicitly print.

Husk, 17 bytes

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ

Prints a positive integer if the graph is bipartite, 0 if not. Try it online!

Explanation

This is a brute force approach: iterate through all subsets S of vertices, and see whether all edges in the graph are between S and its complement.

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ  Implicit input: binary matrix M.
                Π  Cartesian product; result is X.
                   Elements of X are binary lists representing subsets of vertices.
                   If M contains an all-0 row, the corresponding vertex is never chosen,
                   but it is irrelevant anyway, since it has no neighbors.
                   All-1 rows do not occur, as the graph is simple.
      ṠM           For each list S in X:
              Ṁf   Filter each row of M by S, keeping the bits at the truthy indices of S,
        S  fm¬     then filter the result by the element-wise negation of S,
         ȯD        and concatenate the resulting matrix to itself.
                   Now we have, for each subset S, a matrix containing the edges
                   from S to its complement, counted twice.
§V                 1-based index of the first matrix
  ¤=               that equals M
    ṁΣ             by the sum of all rows, i.e. total number of 1s.
                   Implicitly print.

Husk, 17 bytes

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ

Prints a positive integer if the graph is bipartite, 0 if not. Try it online!

Explanation

This is a brute force approach: iterate through all subsets S of vertices, and see whether all edges in the graph are between S and its complement.

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ  Implicit input: binary matrix M.
                Π  Cartesian product; result is X.
                   Elements of X are binary lists representing subsets of vertices.
                   If M contains an all-0 row, the corresponding vertex is never chosen,
                   but it is irrelevant anyway, since it has no neighbors.
                   All-1 rows do not occur, as the graph is simple.
      ṠM           For each list S in X:
              Ṁf   Filter each row of M by S, keeping the bits at the truthy indices of S,
        S  fm¬     then filter the result by the element-wise negation of S,
         ȯD        and concatenate the resulting matrix to itself.
                   Now we have, for each subset S, a matrix containing the edges
                   from S to its complement, twice.
§V                 1-based index of the first matrix
  ¤=               that equals M
    ṁΣ             by the sum of all rows, i.e. total number of 1s.
                   Implicitly print.
1
source | link

Husk, 17 bytes

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ

Prints a positive integer if the graph is bipartite, 0 if not. Try it online!

Explanation

This is a brute force approach: iterate through all subsets S of vertices, and see whether all edges in the graph are between S and its complement.

§V¤=ṁΣṠMSȯDfm¬ṀfΠ  Implicit input: binary matrix M.
                Π  Cartesian product; result is X.
                   Elements of X are binary lists representing subsets of vertices.
                   If M contains an all-0 row, the corresponding vertex is never chosen,
                   but it is irrelevant anyway, since it has no neighbors.
                   All-1 rows do not occur, as the graph is simple.
      ṠM           For each list S in X:
              Ṁf   Filter each row of M by S, keeping the bits at the truthy indices of S,
        S  fm¬     then filter the result by the element-wise negation of S,
         ȯD        and concatenate the resulting matrix to itself.
                   Now we have, for each subset S, a matrix containing the edges
                   from S to its complement, counted twice.
§V                 1-based index of the first matrix
  ¤=               that equals M
    ṁΣ             by the sum of all rows, i.e. total number of 1s.
                   Implicitly print.